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Therefore, nothing we thought we knew about the association between saturated fat and heart disease risk can be accepted as true. The above pertains to all studies conducted on the topic, no matter how robust they may seem to be, and no matter how unrelated to the work of Ancel Keys, on the basis of the faulty foundation postulate . If the foundational work can be faulted, then everything built on or after it is effectively undermined. Whatever the pedigree, credentials, or genuine expertise of those making the above allegations, and whether or not they actually read the studies they were disparaging, the baton was passed to a cadre of enthusiastic bloggers and all-purpose, pop-culture opiners who lacked all of the above and seem generally to feel no obligation to read the studies they critique. Finally, in 1911, the New York Times ran one tiny notice and her inventory completely sold out the next day. To get around the advertising ban, Bryant launched a hugely successful mail-catalog business. A customer relations guru, she promised to reoutfit any customer whose clothes were destroyed by disaster. And she did. She sent clothes to 58 customers whose homes were destroyed in a major explosion in Texas in 1947. But the best thing she ever did was expand from clothes for the big bellied to clothes for the large framed, which was probably one of the greatest inventions for pregnant women who can never get off the pregnancy weight. It had been called the operating room, then the old operating room, and not until the late nineteenth century or early twentieth century did it acquire its latest label. What's more, Mifflin said that Morton, famed for administering ether in the first public demonstration of surgical anesthesia on October 16th, 1846, had claimed to have a dental degree from a school in Baltimore, but no record of his degree has ever been found. Morton was never on staff at MGH. Kosmak, editor of the bulletin of the Lying-In Hospital, who once said: There was a time when pregnancy and labor were conducted under much more natural conditions than at the present; IUDs include hormonal and nonhormonal options. There are four hormonal IUDs, including Mirena(R), Skyla(R), Liletta(R), and Kyleena(R), which last between three and five years. ParaGard(R) is the only nonhormonal IUD available in the United States and can last for up to 10 years. The Nexplanon(R) arm implant is a small rod that's inserted in the skin of the upper arm and releases progestin to prevent pregnancy for up to three years. How do LARC methods work? The IUD is a tiny piece of plastic shaped like a T.

IUDs are inserted in the uterus by a trained clinician, eliminating the possibility of user error. IUDs are well-liked by women with high rates of continuation and satisfaction. Once inserted, women (and their partners) should not be able feel the IUD. Short strings from the IUD hang into the vagina so that women can check to make sure the IUD remains in place. This link in the chain of misinformation translated the evidence we have that saturated fat is implicated in heart disease into: saturated fat has been vindicated ! As happens in telephone, the message was then passed along again - to the next wave of bloggers, for example - who took the above message and turned it into: saturated fat is good for us now ! This message, in turn, spawned: butter is back; None of the above is true. The truth about saturated fat is presented in article 4 . The truth about Dr Keys and his most seminal study, the Seven Countries Study , is laid out in detail beyond the scope of this article in a White Paper commissioned by The True Health Initiative (disclosure: I am the founder and president). The paper relied on primary sources: documents recording what was being done, at the time it was being done; The verdict? Well, for all of it - help yourself to the White Paper, which is freely accessible online. The gist is that Dr Keys' methods were remarkably robust, free of bias, and standard-setting for the time. She had already written several scholarly papers on self-esteem and depression. In fact, she was so absorbed in her work that when she was imprisoned by the Gestapo for failing to reveal her patient list, she treated her fellow inmates and subsequently published articles about their experiences. In 1889, 72-year-old Charles Eduoard Brown-Sequard performed a very unscientific study--some would say an outright silly stunt. Brown-Sequard injected himself with pieces of guinea pig and dog testicles. He told the world he never felt better. His brains and bowels worked better than they had in years.

Brown-Sequard didn't bother with stodgy medical journals that fact-check and require approval by other scientists. He called journalists who loved the story. Unfortunately, his glory was as short-lived as the rest of his life. He died five years later. In our research, one woman said, I love that it's a very discrete and powerful birth control without having to take a daily pill. IUDs offer hormonal and nonhormonal options. The ParaGard(R) IUD does not contain hormones. It is made of plastic and natural, safe copper. It works by stopping sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg. It is approved for use up to 10 years; Hormonal IUDs available in the United States include Mirena(R), Skyla(R), Liletta(R), and Kyleena(R). These IUDs are made of plastic and prevent pregnancy by releasing the hormone progestin (they do not contain estrogen). Since IUDs are placed in the uterus, smaller amounts of progestin circulate through the blood stream compared to the pill. Hormonal IUDs work by thickening cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the uterus, impacting sperm's ability to move, and stopping ovulation. Data were presented fully, transparently, and again, without apparent bias. Conclusions followed logically from the data and have since been corroborated by large aggregation of very diverse research. Put bluntly, Ancel Keys was both scrupulous and right about just about everything. But even if he had not been - and this is why the combination of revisionist history and telephone is so toxic - so what? What if an important researcher doing his most important work over 60 years ago was biased and maybe even unscrupulous, but we had reached much the same conclusion on the basis of unrelated work using modern methods like randomized controlled trials in the years since? Would the faulty foundation postulate pertain?

It would not! Biomedical research is, of course, interdependent. What we learn from one set of studies informs what we do in the next. But that interdependence is much more like an assembly line than a house and a foundation. That put a damper on his claims of hormone rejuvenation. As a footnote to that episode, goat testicles became a 1920s fad for men seeking virility, thanks to John the goat doctor Brinkley, who became phenomenally rich peddling his wacky claims to celebrities. And there were men sipping monkey sperm cocktails who thought they were getting a little pick-me-up elixir. According to Gail Collins's Scorpion Tongues (New York: Harper Perennial, 1998), 73-84, gossip was that Cleveland impregnated Maria Halpin, a widow from Buffalo who had a baby boy that she named Oscar Folsom Cleveland. Grover Cleveland never acknowledged the child but he did pay for its welfare. Eventually, he had Halpin institutionalized and put the baby up for adoption. A Buffalo doctor adopted him and changed his name to James King, who grew up to be a prominent gynecologist. Weiss, Psychosomatic Problems in Fertility, Human Fertility 10, no. In 1938, The Birth of a Baby was made with what Life magazine called the high purpose . The movie was made by the American Committee on Maternal Welfare. Hormonal IUDs are approved for use from three to five years; The implant is the most effective method of reversible contraception available today. In our research, one woman said about the implant, It's stress-free birth control. You don't have to think about it. The implant is a single, thin rod that is inserted by a trained clinician under the skin of the upper arm. It takes about one minute to insert it and about three minutes to remove it.

The implant releases the hormone progestin, which prevents pregnancy by stopping ovulation and thickening cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the uterus. Although Nexplanon(R) has been approved for use up to three years, recent studies show that it is effective for up to four years. Why are LARC methods considered the first-line contraceptive recommendation for all women? In 2015, ACOG strengthened its recommendation of LARC methods as the first-line contraceptive option for all women and adolescents in part because they are the most effective forms of reversible contraception. If you build a bad foundation, the entire house is undermined. But faulty research does not negate the conclusions of good research done prior, nor obviate reliable answers after. What happens in an assembly line if a fault is introduced at one step is that it is caught at the next step. This is certainly true of human assembly lines, where everyone is trained to inspect for evidence that the prior step was completed correctly as a prerequisite to their step. It is true of all good automated assembly lines as well. Biomedical research works in much the same way. As with the actual assembly lines of industry, it is possible on occasion for faulty products to pass through for a while, but that is very much exception rather than rule. The rule is that a fault at any step is tested at the subsequent step, and when recognized as a fault, results in the faulty step being scrutinized and corrected. Another analogy, maybe even more familiar, is the auto-correct function built into all word processing computer programs. If, for instance, you use Microsoft Word and enter a word the system doesn't recognize - because you misspelled a word, made one up, or just happened to know one that Bill Gates didn't - the word is highlighted with a squiggly red line under it (or maybe something else, depending on your version of the software). Local doctors had to sanction the film before it could be shown to the public. Unlike Naissance, The Birth of a Baby shows the newborn emerging through drapes of sheets. He got the Nobel in 1904 for his work on the physiology of digestion and then did the drooling tricks after. George Johnson tells the delightful tale of Pavlov and his dogs in article 9 of The Ten Most Beautiful Experiments (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2008). Never before had a pregnant belly, albeit one clad in a huge-bowed maternity dress, been shown on TV.