As one former employee said of Slack, "They really did try to be a psychologically safe company. It's just that not everyone was equally skilled at maneuvering some of those nuances." Creating the kind of company where people feel comfortable raising concerns without the fear of getting fired takes work and vigilance. For now, the strategies of BCG and Slack seem to be successful. Both organizations are beloved by their employees and customers; on, BCG has been named among the ten "Best Places to Work" for eight of the past nine years, while Slack has an average anonymous review of 4.8 out of 5 stars, with 95 percent of employees saying they'd recommend the company to a friend, and 99 percent approval of the CEO. It is worth noting that, regardless of future profit margins or returns to shareholders, these companies, at the time of writing, show concern and commitment to helping their employees thrive by giving them the freedom to be indistractable. The next level of morality consists of obeying the same rules even in the absence of somebody who will smack you. You obey because you have internalized the rules. You smack yourself every time you break one. This level requires a bit of mind control. But if your thought pattern is chaotic, your behavior will be chaotic, too. Mental cultivation reduces mental chaos. There is a third level of morality, which might better be termed as "ethics." This level is a quantum leap up the scale from the first two levels, a complete shift in orientation. At the level of ethics, a person does not follow hard and fast rules dictated by authority. A person chooses to follow a path dictated by mindfulness, wisdom, and compassion. This level requires real intelligence, and an ability to juggle all the factors in every situation to arrive at a unique, creative, and appropriate response each time. Furthermore, the individual making these decisions needs to have dug him- or herself out of a limited personal viewpoint. The person has to see the entire situation from an objective point of view, giving equal weight to his or her own needs and those of others. In other words, he or she has to be free from greed, hatred, envy, and all the other selfish junk that ordinarily keeps us from seeing the other person's side of the issue. Only then can he or she choose the precise set of actions that will be truly optimal for that situation. This level of morality absolutely demands meditation, unless you were born a saint.

There is no other way to acquire the skill. Furthermore, the sorting process required at this level is exhausting. If you tried to juggle all those factors in every situation with your conscious mind, you'd overload yourself. The intellect just can't keep that many balls in the air at once. Luckily, a deeper level of consciousness can do this sort of processing with ease. Meditation can accomplish the sorting process for you. It is an eerie feeling. Before we examine the profound connection between sleep issues and depression, I want to look at some of the factors that make this such a growing concern. A study by the CDC shows that more than a third of adults and more than two-thirds of teenagers do not get enough sleep.[1] Undoubtedly, you've had your own experiences with sleepless nights, so the intensity of this problem is probably not surprising to you. What may come as a surprise, however, is the pervasiveness of the problem, as well as one of the driving forces behind it. The decline in sleep quality for Americans has been called nothing short of an epidemic, and one of the dynamics fueling this epidemic is our ever-growing obsession with technology (a topic we will discuss in the next chapter). Let's start with the obvious: our cell phones wake us up in the middle of the night. The beeps and chimes that keep us connected during the day--calendar alerts, texts, phone calls, e-mail notifications, weather alerts--don't necessarily stop when we turn off the lights. Being exposed before bedtime to even small amounts of the light emitted by electronic devices makes it harder to fall asleep and stay asleep. This is because the shortwaves interfere with the body's natural production of melatonin, the hormone that controls our circadian rhythm, or cycles of sleeping and waking. Using technology right before sleep is both physiologically and psychologically stimulating. Flinders University professor Michael Gradisar concludes in his research that interactive media--including video games and social media sites--arouse and activate the brain in ways that noninteractive media, such as movies, do not.[4] Gradisar also contributed to a review of thirty-six papers on the relationship between sleep and electronics, which established a consistent link between the use of media at bedtime and delayed onset of sleep as well as shortened sleep time. I didn't realize what was happening while I was doing it, but I had become so likeable, that they were extending themselves to me (which they didn't do for any other customer.) This was one of many experiences I've had in my life which I've seen auto-magnetism at work, without me having to manipulate anyone, or try too hard' to get others to like me to make friends and to create opportunities in my life without struggling to obtain them. <a href=''>It's</a> about being positive and cheerful with aglass is half-full' attitude to life. It's about extending yourself for another, and making other people's lives better.

It's about having the confidence to be yourself around others, and making other people feel great about themselves when they're around you. How many times have you reintroduced yourself to your boss or someone else upstairs? How many times have you tried to get their attention and froze up? Perhaps you don't get the respect that you deserve in the workplace? The workplace is one of the hardest places in life to stand out and get ahead. People are busy and don't have time to stop and talk to every co-worker or subordinate with an agenda. But the likable people? The funny, interesting, engaging people who everyone wants to have lunch with? They create a gravitational field in which bosses, co-workers and clients will come to them. And you can too. Indistractable organizations, like Slack and BCG, foster psychological safety, provide a place for open discussions about concerns, and, most important, have leaders who exemplify the importance of doing focused work. Society's fear of what a potential distraction like the smartphone is doing to our kids has reached a fever pitch. Articles with headlines like "Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation?" and "The Risk of Teen Depression and Suicide Is Linked to Smartphone Use, Study Says" have, ironically enough, gone viral online. Psychologist Jean Twenge, the author of the former article, writes, "It's not an exaggeration to describe iGen as being on the brink of the worst mental-health crisis in decades. Much of this deterioration can be traced to their phones." Convinced by the ominous headlines and fed up with their kids' tech distractions, some parents have resorted to extreme measures. A search on YouTube reveals thousands of videos of parents storming into their kids' rooms, unplugging the computers or gaming consoles, and smashing the devices to bits in order to teach their kids a lesson. At least, that's their hope. I can certainly understand parents' feelings of frustration. One of the first things my daughter ever said was "iPad time, iPad time!" If we didn't comply quickly, she'd increase the volume until we did, raising our blood pressure and testing our patience. As the years passed, my daughter's relationship with screens evolved, and not always in a good way.

She was drawn to spending too much time playing frivolous apps and watching videos. Now that she's older, new problems associated with raising a kid in the digital age have cropped up. On more than one occasion, we've met up with friends and their kids for dinner, only to find ourselves sitting through awkward meals as the kids spend the entire time tap-tap-tapping away at their phones instead of engaging with one another. As tempting as it may be, destroying a kid's digital device isn't helpful. Surrounded by alarming headlines and negative anecdotes, it's easy to understand why many parents think tech is the source of the trouble with kids these days. But is it? As we've seen is the case in the workplace and in our own lives, there are once again hidden root causes to kids' distraction. As we've seen, baseball and other sports figures are notorious for developing superstitions. Why? Uncertainty plays a big part in most sports. The best professional basketball players typically make only about half of their shots from the field. Quarterbacks in the NFL complete an average of about 58 percent of their passes. When such uncertainty exists, superstitions are bound to arise. This occurs even within a sport. If a baseball player gets a hit 30 percent of the time he is known as a premier batter, while hitting 26 percent makes him only average. In contrast, a fielder usually catches a ball that he's expected to catch, or throws a batter out, about 97 percent of the time. As a result, baseball superstitions tend to center most around hitting and pitching--many players feel less need for such superstitions when playing the field.24 Our superstitious beliefs are often reinforced by a biased interpretation of future events. As noted earlier, many people think that things come in threes. To support that belief, they point to many instances where three bad or three good things happened over a period of time. However, evidence for such a superstition is problematic.

Why? We remember the times that three things seemed to happen fairly close to one another, and forget all the times when three things didn't happen together. Once again, we remember the hits and forget the misses. Also, as we noted, there's never a time horizon stated. Do the three things have to happen within a week, a month, or a year? Sooner or later, three similar things are likely to occur. We can interpret just about any data as supporting the things-come-in-three superstition--if we wait long enough. As Stuart Vyse stated, "The fallibility of human reason is the greatest single source of superstitious belief." We like to think that we perceive the world as it actually exists, but the fact is our senses can be deceived. We can actually see and hear things that aren't really there. While this may seem far-fetched, research in psychology and neurobiology indicate that to understand perception, we have to abandon the notion that the image we see is an exact copy of reality. Perception is not just replicating an image in our brain; instead, perception requires an act of judgment by our brain. Most of us are familiar with the picture of the cube presented in figure 5. We see the cube as pointing either up or down depending on how our brain interprets the picture, even though the image remains constant on our retina. External reality hasn't changed, but our interpretation of that reality has. Our perception is also affected by the context in which it occurs. A 5' 10" sports announcer looks quite small when he interviews a basketball player, but quite tall when he interviews a jockey. Thus, our vision is a constructive process--the simple act of seeing is open to interpretation and judgment. One day you've got a problem--let's say, to handle Uncle Herman's latest divorce. It looks absolutely unsolvable, an enormous muddle of "maybes" that would give King Solomon himself a headache. The next day you are washing the dishes, thinking about something else entirely, and suddenly the solution is there.