Dr Smoot (2006) says, People cannot foresee the future well enough to predict what's going to develop from basic research. If we only did applied research, we would still be making better spears. The takeaway from basic research is that it always has value even if not immediate. Applied Research is often thought of as practical. It adds to an existing human technology or technique. Exercise helps a little. So does moderate alcohol intake. But patients usually end up with the impression that, while they can lower their bad-cholesterol levels with diet and exercise, their good-cholesterol level is largely unchangeable. Ironically, it's the exact opposite. It's your bad-cholesterol level that is largely unchanged by diet and exercise. Your HDL is highly dependent on your lifestyle and significantly influenced by diet and exercise. How did this get overlooked? Until recently, doctors recommended low-fat, low-cholesterol diets for cholesterol problems, which actually lower HDL levels. It's no wonder that doctors thought diet and exercise did no good: The kinds of diets they were prescribing actually made the problem worse. Here's the good news: While low-fat diets lower HDL levels, low-carbohydrate diets raise them. One of the two gets reframed into something that will work better for you at the end of the day. The end result is that you are able to change the way in which you interact with the world around you and in doing so, you defeat the problems entirely. You can do this through the use of all sorts of visualization practices. When you change the content, you want to change the meaning of the situation that you were in. You are attempting to alter the focus within the memory to instead involve a different focus.

This is usually through the use of shifting your attention to something that is not the primary focus most of the time. Shifting the context, then, is your other option. When you make use of this process, you are usually looking at attempting to focus on something entirely different within what you are looking at. You may be looking at the perception and shifting it into something positive. Instead of seeing the entire thing as a problem, you begin to recognize that there was a lesson to learn, for example. After all, we have to solve problems. For example, numerous advances in the 20th century were developed because of the improvement of sanitation systems around the world. From the Greeks to the Egyptians to the Chinese and Americans, sanitation systems solved a real and immediate problem that allowed people to live better and longer. The world of clinical psychology is full of applied research. Antidepressants were initially created to treat allergies. Over time, doctors found incidentally that people with symptoms of depression also improved. Doctors began to use medications to treat allergies to treat depression. Even though the doctors were using applied research to solve one problem, they discovered that the medications had the potential of solving an additional problem. Through this iterative3 process applied research can bear on basic research. At this point, you may have noted that distinctions between basic research and applied research may seem odd. In fact, scientists have known for years that low-carbohydrate diets raise good cholesterol slightly--by approximately 5 percent. They have also known for years that exercise raises HDL levels slightly--again, by about 5 percent. But what if you exercise and cut carbs? Only recently have researchers carefully studied what happens when you do both. University of Pennsylvania researchers randomly divided 307 subjects into two groups.

They gave one group the usual advice to avoid fat and cholesterol and count calories, without giving them specific instructions to exercise. They told the other group to avoid carbohydrates and walk 50 minutes five times a week. The group that cut carbs and exercised increased their HDL levels by 23 percent more than the subjects who didn't exercise--results that match any medication available today. Most people who have low levels of HDL (less than 40 for men, less than 50 for women) have high blood triglyceride levels. As you'll recall, your liver converts excess carbs to triglycerides and sends them through your bloodstream to be stored as fat. T o do this, you must firstly identify whether you are reframing the content or reframing the context. Then, you must begin to figure out what is going on within that traumatic memory that you have? You would need to think back at the situation, thinking heavily about the memory. Maybe you slipped in mud in the middle of a rainstorm and you were really embarrassed because, for the rest of the year, you were known as muddy butt by all of your classmates in elementary school. It was horribly embarrassing and the nickname made it worse, especially as it continued to follow you. From that day on, you have found that your anxiety in the rain is far more than usual, and that you are generally nervous about interacting with people because you do not want to make yourself vulnerable to that kind of bullying or badgering again in the future. T o reframe this, you must stop and think about the memory. Think about what it was that happened in your memory. Imagine the scene in your head as clearly as you can--you can see yourself falling, landing in the mud, and you can feel just how wet your pants were as you sat in the giant puddle of mud. You know how the children around you made fun of you. We can analyze basic and applied research as if they are part of a sequence. But perhaps applied and basic research simply represent two parts on a continuum. If we operationalize that basic research comes before applied research or that applied research comes before basic research, then we can develop a mental model that may prevent us from seeing the connections. In decision making, the most fundamental bias is called the confirmation bias. In this bias, we interpret new information in order to confirm our existing bias.

To be learners, we have to want to learn but also, we need to be aware of how our current thinking may limit our ability to see new ways of thought. That is one day proceeds another. But our connections are like double-sided Legos that can fit together in various directions. Seeing the multidirectional fit of our multisided lives is one of the fundamental benefits of the digital world. Digital is not only a technology of 1's and 0's it is a metaphor through which we create new metonymies4 and meanings. Although triglyceride itself is largely harmless, high levels of it wash away good cholesterol. If you cut out carbs and exercise regularly, after a few days your triglyceride levels will drop, and after a few weeks your HDL levels will usually rise. Losing weight, quitting smoking, and moderating alcohol consumption all add to the HDL-raising effects of cutting carbs and exercising. Indeed, lifestyle changes can raise HDL levels by as much as 50 percent. There is a small minority of people with low levels of good cholesterol for whom diet and exercise do not work. Most of these individuals have a genetic quirk in their HDL metabolism that keeps their good-cholesterol levels low no matter how hard they work at it. It is possible to recognize such people by measuring their triglyceride levels. If those levels are always normal (less than 125), diet and exercise are unlikely to raise HDL. To increase HDL, doctors sometimes prescribe the vitamin niacin in much larger doses than needed to avoid deficiency. Niacin raises HDL and has been proven to reduce the risk of heart disease. However, to fix the problem, you must look for something else that you can pay attention to. Reconsider the situation entirely--things could have been worse, right? What if someone else had fallen in the mud? What if someone else had gotten hurt instead? What if you had fallen and landed on someone else instead and hurt them?

You stop and consider the many different ways that the problem could have played out and you focus on something positive--your mother picked you up from school and took you out for hot chocolate after you got all cleaned up, and that allowed you to get more time in which your mother than before. That could be a great way to think about this memory, for example. B y shifting your focus of that memory from what had happened and associating that rainfall with the problem that you faced into instead focusing on something good that came out of it, you can begin that reframing process. Perhaps, you start to focus on rain being connected to that nice mug of hot chocolate that you shared in the cafe with your mother. Maybe you remember the fun that you and your mother had together when you did go together. Part of academic thinking is holding multiple thoughts together simultaneously. For me, the magic word is AND. Reflect on your own life AND the relationships within it. You love your partner AND your partner annoys you. Your job brings you joy AND it takes all of your time. Spending money allows you to have a product or experience AND it means you have to give up on another product or experience. How to learn? As I have shared before there are three types of learning - learning, re-learning, and un-learning - but still the question remains: what does it mean to learn something? From dictionary. In other words, learning requires a change from A to B which requires movement (Athletics) and trying things differently (Adventure). The problem with niacin is that it often causes annoying flushing and hot flashes. Although these usually subside after a few months of taking the drug, they often discourage people from staying on it. Another HDL-raising medication is a type of drug called a fibrate. It's relatively free of side effects, but studies of the drug's effectiveness have been inconsistent. It does reduce the risk of heart disease in people with high triglyceride levels (more than 200) combined with low HDL levels (less than 40)--the same people who are able to raise their HDL levels by cutting carbs and exercising.