I can tell you from first-hand experience, that is no easy task. I have done it a number of times, working on the particulars of a nutrient profiling algorithm, developing consensus about the fundamentals of good nutrition, and clarifying the history of the Seven Countries Study , to name just a few. The most prominent tend to be especially prone and especially adept. In other words, getting a group of academics to agree about anything makes herding cats seem easy. I found this out because when I mentioned sperm banking to a friend, he wondered whether anyone saved the sperm of the 2006 Kentucky Derby champion, Barbaro, who hurt his leg and was euthanized. The answer is no. He and his sperm were cremated. One scientist told me there have been reports of low sperm counts among monogamous men, prompting some scientists to claim that there may be some validity to the theory. I don't believe it. They just say it to make the wives of low-sperm-count men feel better. In the late 1800s, J. Marion Sims noted that sperm seem to wiggle around as if they are looking for something. And then in 1939, Dr Frances Seymour commented that doctors should not judge sperm by looks. Her studies found that the fertility index of spermatozoa may not be judged by conformity of the count per cubic centimeter, by ascertainable motility or by any other physical factors diagnosable by ordinary microscopic examination. In our research, one woman described IUD insertion as the worst period cramps ever. Insertion usually lasts less than five minutes. One woman we talked with described the trade-off as short-term pain, long-term gain. The news media may sensationalize the likelihood of experiencing significant pain during IUD insertion. Recent headlines include Why IUD Insertions Are So Incredibly Painful from the Huffington Post (Birch, 2019) and Pain on a Cosmic Level: Getting an IUD Can Be Excruciating. Is There a Better Way?

Health-care providers may recommend taking an over-the-counter pain killer, such as ibuprofen, before an IUD insertion. Scheduling an IUD insertion during menstruation can help because the cervix is already slightly open. Health-care providers may also offer a local numbing medicine that is injected into the cervix. In the past, health-care providers prescribed a medicine to soften the cervix prior to IUD insertion; In the case of the AHA authors, I know quite a few of them personally, and they certainly fit this mold. They are professional parsers of detail, not inclined to take much for granted and not inclined to agree just because a peer suggests they should. Consensus does not come easy. We might also note - and perhaps Francis Bacon would agree - that the AHA panel could reach a surprising conclusion without undermining the organization or the careers of the advisory authors. The AHA authors have reputations as highly-accomplished academics; In fact, the group has authored many very diverse opinions, from pointing out the association between sugar intake and cardiovascular risk, to the effect of both quantity and quality of ingested carbohydrate on glycemic measures in people without diabetes, to the relatively limited impact of dietary cholesterol on blood cholesterol levels, to the effects of flavonoid consumption on all-cause mortality, to the effects of fiber on postprandial glycemic responses, and so much more. It's certainly not a group with professional reputation pegged to any particular conclusion about diet and health, other than following the data where they lead. In other words, members of this group could change their minds on the basis of changing evidence, cite the changing evidence, and carry on as before. No damage would be done to them, their livelihoods, their followings, or their fields. In contrast, the only gauntlet the solo author has to navigate is agreement with himself. These were the days before doctors were talking about receptors, but she was onto something that today's researchers seem to be confirming. Seymour, Sterile Motile Spermatozoa Proved by Clinical Experimentation, Journal of the American Medical Association 112, no. Poynter, MD, former director of England's Wellcome Trust, who wrote about the history of artificial insemination, Sims's account angered Americans and English, but the French used it as a starting point for more public discussion. Artificial insemination was used more widely in France. The decision was based on the court case regarding the child born from donor sperm that had a family history of a serious kidney disorder. He had donated more than 300 times before being rejected for his medical history.

The issue is, when do you have to come forth? Will the court's decision dissuade men from donating? Already stringent policies in Europe about open donation have reduced supplies tremendously. Stephen Bayer, an IVF specialist from Boston, told NPR's Tovia Smith that he worried that donors will refuse to participate. Many women are able to return to their normal activities immediately after insertion, while others may experience cramping for a few days. A follow-up appointment will be scheduled to make sure the IUD stays in the right place. How do LARC methods impact menstruation? The copper IUD does not contain hormones, so it does not interfere with the menstrual cycle. However, women may experience worse cramping and heavier bleeding for six months following insertion. Then, the menstrual cycle should return to normal. Women using hormonal IUDs may experience irregular bleeding for approximately six months followed by lighter bleeding or no bleeding at all. Approximately one in five people stop bleeding entirely after one year. According to the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, women who already have lighter or moderate periods are more likely to stop bleeding completely. The implant may cause irregular bleeding at first followed by reduced cramping and lighter bleeding or no bleeding at all. No point belaboring the lesser challenge in that. Further, in the case of this particular solo author, his reputation, following, and arguably career, are predicated on defending a particular view of nutrition. This position seems to be so fixed that even when research his own organization funds challenges it, he is disinclined to make any adjustments. Stated rather bluntly: maybe Gary Taubes was trying to put Francis Bacon's shoe on all the wrong feet! The problem of false equivalence is worth noting here as well, although it is addressed in an entry all its own (see Fallacy 8 - False Equivalence ). The idea that any one writer, with one point of view apparently fixed for decades, is a suitable opposing voice to a multidisciplinary panel of leading experts, seems to me a very dubious and dangerous proposition.

Like nutrition, climate science also has its iconoclasts. It, too, has industries that favor alternative narratives more conducive to their proximal profits. And so, like nutrition, we get periodic news and study results that could theoretically challenge the weight of evidence. When the global consensus about climate change and our role in it does not change with each such disclosure, does that mean they are closed minded, or does it simply mean that they are unimpressed? He said there is no such thing as the perfect donor. Everyone has a family history. One of the first successful thaws of an oocyte resulting in a pregnancy was by an Australian researcher who reported a twin pregnancy in 1986. Chen, Pregnancy after Human Oocyte Cryopreservation, Lancet 1, no. Compare this rare cancer with breast cancer that was diagnosed in 178,480 women in 2007 and killed 40,460 during the same year. See the bibliography for a smattering of some of her papers. Woodruff's team at Northwestern University, for instance, reported on October 6, 2007, in the Journal of Tissue Engineering, that they were able to take immature eggs from prepubescent mice and grow them inside a follicle with a special medium that allowed the cells to mature, and one egg spawned a pregnancy. Porcu et al. I was not shocked that the bank would collect this information but that women would allow their photo, age, weight, and minutia of their and their family's medical history on the Web for anyone to see. It gave me the creeps. Approximately one in three people stop bleeding at all after one year. As we discussed in article 3 of this article, it is completely safe to stop getting a period while using hormonal contraception. Hormonal contraception prevents ovulation and keeps the uterine lining thin, so the endometrium does not need to be shed. How do LARC methods protect fertility? After LARC methods are removed, women return to being able to become pregnant immediately. Most women ovulate two weeks after stopping hormonal contraception, which means they can become pregnant before having a period.

Studies show that one-year pregnancy rates among women stopping LARC methods are comparable to women using other contraceptive options or no contraception at all. As we discussed in article 3 of this article, some LARC methods may also protect fertility by limiting unnecessary ovulations. Limiting ovulation is also the mechanism by which hormonal contraception decreases the risk of ovarian cancer. Are LARC methods safe for women? I think it means the latter, as the weight of evidence overwhelmingly favors their conclusions and does so only ever more strongly . Having an open mind means being willing and able to change it when warranted. Having an open mind certainly does not mean changing it whenever new but utterly underwhelming evidence comes along. Having an open mind, in other words, certainly does not require a mind so open that one's brains fall out altogether. While this entry, like all the others in the article, addresses a common liability in the understanding of diet and health, I concede that the motivations may be somewhat personal in this case. I have been accused many times, in comments posted publicly and emails sent privately, of being unwilling to change my mind; Oddly enough, though, the volume and variety of such criticisms do much to belie them. I am harangued by ardent vegans for not saying that vegan diets are decisively best for health, even as I am accused by proponents of more meat, butter, and cheese, of arguing too forcefully for vegan diets. I have been accused by some of discounting the toxicities of sugar, and by others of exaggerating them. I already know, of course, that I am not ideological about diet. Donor 850991, for instance, is a pretty 5-foot 8-inch blonde, who scored (according to herself) 1,500 on her SATs, and includes cheerleading under academic information. She also reports that her grandfather has Alzheimer's, her sister suffers from seasonal allergies, and she can type 95 words per minute without mistakes. She also says that her favorite article is Moby-Dick and her unique learning experience was figuring out that being popular in high school was not the greatest thing in the world. Someone in the audience asked a client who had just given a testimonial about Extend whether one should admit to dates that they have frozen their eggs. I was mystified by the discussion this question provoked, which led to talk about whether to put egg freezer on your online dating profile and how many dates you should wait to bring up the topic. I mean, what man wants to hear about a woman's gynecology appointments on the first date, or second or third for that matter?