The proliferation of the virus demonstrates the truth, and the challenge, of that interconnectedness: we are not safe when those around us are not healthy and safe. Our fates are linked, and we are all as vulnerable as the most vulnerable among us. If the cheap burger I eat comes from a restaurant that denies paid sick leave to its waiters and kitchen staff, that makes me more vulnerable to illness. A market-based system that doesn't adequately provide for everyone along the supply chain fails, catastrophically. In turn, this causes insomnia, and around you go. The worst sleepers in the meQuilibrium pool were shown to be one and a half times as stressed as the best sleepers. Poor sleep hits us on every level. Mentally, it fries our thinking and impairs our problem-solving capabilities. Our emotional resilience and outlook are compromised, as well. Compared to good sleepers, poor sleepers are 36 percent less optimistic and almost twice as vulnerable to burnout. On a physical level, not getting quality sleep has been linked to everything from depression to lowered libido to heart disease to diabetes--all of which only add to the already-stacked stress pile. But enough about the toll poor sleep can take. How about we look at the positive effect that getting a good night's rest can have on you, instead? Studies show that good sleep can: Because of this hypothesis, the therapist does not try to affect the pace or the direction of therapy; The therapist's aim is to see things through the child's eyes, in order verbally to clarify the child's expressed feelings. However, when the child refuses to allow any access to his private feelings, the therapist accepts this refusal and does not seek to intrude. There is no attempt to alter the child, but only to make possible his self-alteration, when and if he wishes it. In these and other ways the therapist tries to communicate his underlying respect for the child as he is at the moment. The child's perception of this attitude of the therapist seems to aid his use of the relationship with reduced anxiety.

It seems to help him to bring out into the open rejected as well as accepted aspects of his personality, and to form some kind of integration among them. Among the outcomes of successful therapy have been altered peer-group and parent-child relationships, improved schoolwork, change in previous diagnosis of mental defect, reduction of reading disability, disappearance of tics, and cessation of stealing and other socially unacceptable behavior. The areas of application of client-centered play therapy have been wide. Whether they may be extended as far as childhood psychoses is a question for future investigation. The fallout of the virus shines a glaring light on inequities baked into our culture. The microbe itself may not discriminate, but its impact falls particularly hard on already disadvantaged and discriminated-against communities, like Black people, Indigenous people, and other People of Color, trans people, disabled people, and older people, who are more likely to lack a financial cushion and less able to work from home. They are also less able to avoid infection, more likely to get very sick, and less able to access the quality health care they may need if they do get sick. During times of uncertainty and change, fear, anxiety, depression, rage, hopelessness, and other troubling emotions amp up. Stress-related disease runs rampant, and substance use, eating disorders, addictive behaviors, and other coping behaviors spike. It is understandable that we are reaching for life preservers during this time of profound separation and uncertainty. Health, including mental health, is inherently political, and collective dis-ease manifests in individual lives and bodies. As disheartening as current times are--and may, by this article's publication, still be--opportunity can come from crisis. These early days of the pandemic are revealing that what was once thought impossible is, indeed, possible. The multi-trillion-dollar US stimulus budget shows that, with enough political will, we can make money out of thin air. When it comes to stress, good sleep has a profound effect. In our studies, good sleepers scored significantly better on twenty-seven out of the twenty-eight stress factors. Their ability to think clearly, regulate their emotions, break through relationship impasses, balance their work and home life, manage their time, eat better, tap into a sense of meaning and purpose in their life . HOW MUCH SLEEP IS ENOUGH? But most people don't live in the ideal, and it varies from person to person. It's really more about getting to understand your body.

How do you feel on the days that you get six hours of sleep? On the days you sleep late and get nine or ten? Do you feel refreshed when you wake up in the morning? Pay attention not just to how you feel when you wake up but throughout the day. Thus far, research studies have been meager and inadequate, but the challenge of the field is clear. As clinical experiences and research studies in play therapy increase in number, scope, and quality, perhaps the perplexing problem of what constitutes psychotherapeutic change may come nearer to solution. SUGGESTED READINGS An historical perspective upon client-centered play therapy may be gained from the articles by Taft (209), Allen (5), and Axline (14), especially when read in the order given. Special applications of nondirective play therapy have been described in several articles. Among these are Axline's articles on race conflict (15), mental defect (12), and reading retardation (13). Bills' studies of reading retardation (24, 25) will be of particular interest to the research-minded, for they are the most carefully designed investigations to date. Work with physically handicapped children has been described by Cruickshank and Cowen (47, 46). Special problems arising in a case transferred from one therapist to another are reported by Bixler (30). In another article, Bixler (29) discusses the handling of aggression against the therapist. The dramatic decline in air pollution as countries are brought to a standstill by the virus shows that changes in habits can clean the sky. Life under lockdown is teaching us lessons in valuing the workers who sustain us, consuming less, and living simpler and more sustainable lives. I am heartened, too, as I witness beautiful acts of compassion and generosity of spirit. It has taken the coronavirus to remind us of the interdependence of humanity--and that connection is our most valuable resource. We need to nurture it as if our lives depend on it. Because they do.

If there is a silver lining to this pandemic, it is that it has made our crisis of belonging evident--and exposed Radical Belonging as necessary, not just helpful, for survival. The way through this is together. The themes of this article are more important now than ever. Join me in the articles that follow for hope, inspiration, and a path forward. Is your cognitive functioning sharp? Are you able to control and regulate your emotions? All these are clues that will enable you to zero in on the number of hours of sleep that are optimal for you. So it's important to make sleeping smart--which means sleeping better and longer--a priority. Often, it takes only a few small changes in your routine. Let's fix the simple pieces and get leverage where we can: in your habits. Then you can have more energy and capacity to do the things that will allow you to relieve stress effectively. You can do all the work of emotion regulation, and all the other highly effective skills you'll learn in the next 12 days, but if you're still compromising good sleep, you're negating your efforts. Your sleep schedule, bedtime habits, and lifestyle choices make an enormous difference in sleep patterns. Use the tips below to create a tailored sleeping plan. For a presentation of a somewhat similar approach applied in a preschool setting, see the report by Baruch (19). Its application to allergy patients, seven of whom were children, is reported in a later article (133). By NICHOLAS HOBBS, PH. In significant respects, group therapy is like individual therapy. It is also distinctly different. The similarities arise from a common purpose and from a shared conception of the nature of human personality and how it changes.

The differences arise from the important fact that in individual therapy only two people are immediately involved, whereas in group therapy five or six or seven persons interact in the process of therapy. This multiplication of the number of the participants means more than the extension of individual therapy to several persons at once; Although the essential kinship between client-centered therapy and group-centered therapy will be evident in the discussion that follows, an effort will be made to communicate the peculiar genius of group therapy, not just in broad outline, but with details that will bring the reader into intimate understanding of the process, and with quotations from therapy sessions and from diaries about therapy that will let him taste the flavor of the experience. In the tradition established in the development of client-centered therapy, research findings will be brought in to give foundation for generalizations. It's hard to be yourself and feel belonging in a culture that is hostile to your existence. Think of someone you love. I'm willing to bet that when you think about the people you cherish, it's probably your dearest wish that they have access to every tool and opportunity possible to be themselves, be loved, and flourish in a welcoming world. My parents wanted this for me. They wanted me to be loved and cherished. They wanted me to fit in and flourish. That's why they chose to name me Linda. Linda means beautiful, the a signifying female--facts I learned at my bat mitzvah, a Jewish ritual that marks the day a girl becomes a woman, at age thirteen. I'll never forget my father's speech. He was so proud, he told us, as my mother beamed at his side, of how I was living up to the name they had chosen for me. You don't need to tackle all of these at once. Just choose one or two that you feel will have the most impact for you and commit to putting them into practice--tonight! Here is Dr Adam's prescription for healthy sleep habits. If You Have Difficulty Falling Asleep Go to bed at around the same time every night and wake up around the same time every morning. Routine tells your body when you should be asleep and when you should be awake.