Both men and women in the study ate more in response to larger portions. Fewer than one half of the men and women reported they noticed a difference in the portion sizes they were given. Researchers suggest that people have the expectation that the amount of food served to them by others is appropriate. They suggest limiting portion size at restaurants and at home to slow the increasing incidence of obesity. Part of the puzzle of life is finding the best vehicle for the next stage of life's journey. For some, meditation can seem too passive. So if you feel like this look for a more active approach. For example, diarying has evolved into the art of the personal learning log. The main aim is to focus for 10 or 20 minutes each day on self-improvement. If you like to use your mind to think things through, this may be the best approach for you. The way you use a learning log is as a tool to focus your awareness of yourself and your ability to deal with the day to day lessons that life so generously offers. To activate this habit, first you need to decide you want to do it and buy an A5 hardback notearticle. The next step is to get some external support, ideally you buddy but any friend will do, and ask them if you can let them know everyday for a week whether you have done your learning log or not. Lastly you decide what time of day you are going to do it (mornings work best) as part of your getting up process and you make a start. There are usually two components. The last twenty-four hours and the next twenty-four hours. You are looking at the events of the day and taking a "step back" to gain new insights. For example, you might ask yourself, "What did I say or do that resulted in them getting so angry?" You step out of the situation in your mind until you can comfortably imagine what you could have done differently to resolve the issue. One of the biggest benefits of your learning log is over time you will release the need to worry and beat yourself up when things don't go well. The second habit is giving yourself lots of clear directions for the life you want to lead.

These can be a small as items on your "to do" list or as profound as changing your thinking on who you want to become and the life you want to lead. To begin, check that you're clear on what is important to you in your life. If not, go back and do the exercise on clarification of values in article 2. Once you're clear on your values, then focus on clarifying the purpose of your life. Imagine that in this great mystery called life that you have a unique place. And that the special skills and attributes that you have, are there for you to achieve your true potential. What would you like to have as your life purpose? Begin to consider, "My life purpose is". I really don't know if that works or not as I cannot do the experiment. I can't walk up to an athlete and say, "I want you to be in this experiment, I think you're about to be sick. There are things I could advise you to do to prevent that. However, I need you to be in the control group." Of course I can't do that. My reputation would be shot. No one would want to come back. So, what I rely on is the same thing you rely on when you do an experiment to see if something is beneficial. I don't have any data to suggest if this works or not, but what I do have are outcomes. Those outcomes are highly successful athletes. Illbruck Challenge, for example, not only won the Volvo Ocean Race that year. They also set the world record for crossing the Atlantic that year. They were the healthiest and had the fewest instances of infection and were incredibly successful.

Therefore I believe it does work. There's no reason you shouldn't try it as well. Not to mention the benefits of going to bed earlier anyway in order to get that extra energy. You'll know instantly. You'll get immediate gratification that is benefiting you in that regard. A single moment in time. That's what today's world is from an evolutionary perspective. We humans are genetically designed to function best if we respect the diet, exercise, and stress management principles that evolved a very long time ago. Remember, the human genome has changed less than 0.02 percent in the past 40,000 years. 1 Our genes and biochemistry are deeply, even stubbornly, designed to function just as they did long ago, based on ancient cycles of feast and famine, energy and survival. Geneticists estimate that it takes perhaps 200,000 years to significantly shift our genetic makeup as a human race. So the signals that most effectively spark our metabolic thermostats are deeply wired into our metabolism today. We ignore them at our own risk. I've heard some people say, "How can something so old be so important? Weren't our ancestors suffering and barely surviving?" Nothing could be further from the truth. According to virtually all of the in-depth studies, these men and women were free of most diseases, healthy, fit, strong, and filled with vitality. 2 The medical evidence indicates that their body fat levels, strength, aerobic capacity, blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and metabolism were vastly superior to those of the average man or woman today. Growing up in a family where fear, worry, and anxiety are consistently modeled by parents or family members may teach a child to be anxious. In addition, if a child grows up in a home where a parent or sibling is terminally ill, in an abusive or alcoholic home where she is walking on eggshells around a parent, or constantly in an over-alert state, she may learn to expect the worst, or actually look for the worst. The child ends up living in a state of constant worry.

The psychological state of fear and trauma can also be present when a child is bullied at school, in the neighborhood, or on the school bus. The continuous state of anxiety that results creates children who might freeze up or withdraw in order to protect themselves. They have a tendency to lose their sense of belonging and separate themselves out from friends. A typical example is the child who is standing off on his own during lunch or recess. It is also common for a child feeling anxiety to fall into a world of his own where he might feel he has to create plans for how to safeguard himself, "just in case." When this happens, the body and mind's resources are sidetracked, and your child's growth may become interrupted. Milgram's sky-gazing experiment has now been repeated using modern digital image capture technology, which permits an exactitude of analysis that Milgram could have only dreamed of. Experiments have tracked both the direction of walking and head directions of 3,325 pedestrians, in naturally occurring crowds, either on a crowded street, or on a busy railway-station concourse.26 The researchers instructed a group of people to stand on one of the busiest streets in Europe - Oxford Street in London - and stare up at a camera mounted on a building. They then watched the behaviour of 2,822 passers-by, and found, just as Milgram did, that the greater the number of people looking up in the group, the more likely people were to gaze upward too. More than a quarter of passers-by adopted the gaze position and direction of the stimulus group. This is mobile cognition in action in the real world: we see an opportunity for what might be some important information scavenging, and we engage in it quickly, copying others through the action of an elaborate neural machinery of which we are unaware. They also observed what looked like a cliff-edge effect of some significance: passers-by beyond an approximately two-metre distance did not stop and gaze upwards. Passers-by were most likely to stop and gaze upward if they approached the stimulus group from behind. Upward-gazing, and thereby copying what another person is doing, is not here a simple social conformity effect: the person gazing upward will be completely unaware of someone engaging in upward gazing to their rear. A passer-by's visual attention can be captured, in part at least, by their noticing the position and orientation or direction of the back of the gazer's head. Certainly, when we go out to a restaurant and we're paying a premium for a meal, we want to eat what we've paid for. Some people will continue to eat even when they are not hungry in order to finish the food on the plate. Limiting what we eat and then taking some home for a snack or lunch the next day is an option, but it's not always a viable one. To keep portion size manageable at a restaurant, consider sharing the appetizer and dessert or having an appetizer as a main course. When ordering in restaurants try to avoid fried foods and try to avoid bread. Most restaurants provide a basket of bread or rolls before the meal.

If you are hungry, then you will dive into the bread basket to satisfy your hunger. White bread and rolls include fast-digesting carbohydrates that will cause a rapid increase in glucose and insulin levels. It is best to avoid the bread and have an appetizer that has a balance of protein, carbohydrate and fat. A few shrimp with olives or a goat cheese salad would not cause insulin levels to skyrocket. If you enjoy having a piece of bread, dip it in vinegar and olive oil instead of smearing it with butter to reduce saturated fats and add the protective benefits of olive oil. Get yourself some small cards (business cards do nicely). On the back write "The purpose of my life is." Complete the sentence by writing whatever words fit best with your values. These will never, of course, feel quite right so you keep the card in your pocket and keep improving the words every time you get a new insight. This card can be very useful to pull out whenever you are faced with a difficult decision. It makes it a lot easier to stay on track. Use your life purpose card for a few months and you will be a lot clearer on what being on track means for you. Having this understanding will help you in another way as well. That is, you are going to do just the opposite. If your circumstances only allow you to get a certain amount of very limited sleep each night and you want to make sure when you wake up you are raring to go, then you want to wake up from REM sleep. That's exactly what happens when you awaken in the middle of the night. You are exhausted when you went to bed only a few hours earlier. You've only slept for an hour and a half but you can't get back to sleep. You're lying there wide-awake and I'm sure that's happened to you. Wouldn't it be great if you could wake up in the morning during that stage when you need to be getting up? You sleep in 90-minute increments.