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The change is modest but important. Would other therapies show a greater degree of personality change? Unfortunately, this question cannot be answered at the present time because thus far only client-centered therapists have exposed their work to objective study of outcomes. It is probable, however, that with any therapy it will be found that a modest amount of change in the basic personality is the outcome to be expected. Characteristic Changes in Behavior To the man in the street the sixty-four dollar question in regard to any psychotherapy is, Does it improve the way the person acts? What the layman wishes to know of any client who has undergone therapy is simply, Did he stop fighting with his wife? Did he get better grades in his courses? Is he now getting along satisfactorily in his job? These are very reasonable questions. And please, don't add up the money you have already spent. It's gone, so forgive and love yourself. Now, what dreams have you been postponing? By when will you begin to take action on your own dreams? PERSECUTORS Persecutors elevate their own standing by taking advantage of someone else. They see a weakness and move in to take advantage of some fairly easy pickings. Bullies are a classic example, as are shady characters, whether they are landlords, shop owners, drug dealers, or anyone else. I've even seen this position played in religious communities behind a large facade of denial. Persecutors lurk behind doors, alleyways, smiles, and business plans, looking for an opening. Unfortunately, persecutors rarely open their hearts to their own old hurts.

Keep it simple and honest, and don't stress about doing it every day. Let's begin. It can be as simple as making it through the day, having a place to rest your body, or the loving presence of your pet. For example: I'm grateful that my cat loves to sit on my lap. I'm grateful that Prince recorded a lot of music that I can enjoy. I'm grateful that I have a wonderful bed to sleep in tonight. Remember that there is no right or wrong way to do this exercise. You don't need to buy a fancy journal. The important thing is to establish the habit of paying attention to events that can inspire gratitude in your daily life. It is unfortunate that any attempt to answer them objectively involves us in great complexities. While there is ample clinical evidence that behavior frequently changes during or after therapy, it is difficult to prove that this change resulted from therapy or to show that it represents improvement. Improvement, for one client, may mean a new willingness to differ with his wife, while for another it may mean fewer quarrels with his spouse. For one client improvement may be indicated by the fact that he now gets an A in courses where he formerly received C or D, but another client may show his improvement by a lessened compulsiveness, by taking a B or a C in courses where he formerly received nothing but A. One man may show that he has profited from therapy by a smoother and more adequate adjustment to his job, another by achieving the courage to leave his job for a new field. Clinically each of these behaviors may seem to be clearly an indication of improved adjustment, but there is no doubt that such judgments are subjective and hence open to question. How then are we to approach this question of the behavioral changes which accompany therapy? A group of research studies which have been made in client-centered therapy fall far short of answering all our questions, but they at least represent a start toward an objective answer. We shall present these in sequential order as they increasingly approach the goal of externally verified evidence of behavioral change in the direction of improved adjustment. The summarized finding will first be stated and then some amplification will follow.

Persecutors play I win and you lose. Action Step This step takes courage. Right now, only you need to know that you step onto the persecutor position. Everyone does from time to time. No judgment, just awareness and compassion. To shift your perception, consider some classic persecutor comments: How could you spend that much? Why did you do that? Who made this mess? I'm going to get you to pay for this no matter what! Reframe Your Pain Thermometer Good for: headaches, joint pain, nerve pain, releasing tension, stress relief This exercise allows you to change your perception of pain in a way that doesn't involve your normal, thinking mind. You will use the imagery of a thermometer that measures your pain as a way to reframe how you think about your body. Over time, this simple exercise can be used to reduce your pain at a moment's notice. By being aware of the changes in your body, you allow your brain to revise your thought habits about pain. You will need a pen and paper to jot down some information about how you feel before and after the session. Let's begin. Imagine that you're watching the numbers move on the screen, and the thermometer stops at the number you chose. For example, if your pain number was 85, that's the number you'd see.

Snyder (197), Seeman (180), and Strom (204) have shown that in the last two-fifths of the counseling process there is a rather sharp increase in material of this sort, though it never forms more than a small portion (5 to 12 per cent) of the conversation. It might be said that these studies indicate that the client plans to change his behavior and discusses ways in which he has changed it. Such evidence is, however, entirely from the client's point of view. In a small study which deserves expansion and repetition, Hoffman (86) extracted from the interviews in ten cases all references to current and recent behavior and to planned behavior. Each of these was typed on a separate card and rated for maturity of behavior by a judge who did not know the case, the outcome, or the interview from which the statement had been taken. The scale was a simple three-point scale, from immature and irresponsible behavior to mature behavior. For the ten cases as a whole there was an increase in the maturity of reported behavior, so determined, but this increase was not statistically significant. The ten cases were then divided into the five more successful and the five less successful, using as criteria the combined results of four other objective methods of analysis. When this was done, it was found that the more successful cases showed a statistically significant increase in the maturity of reported behavior, but the less successful cases showed little change. This finding appeared to substantiate clinical thinking, that the more successful the interviews appear to be, the greater the change in the direction of maturity of behavior. You just wait until ----- gets here! Then you'll really pay! I'm going to give you something to really worry about! I'll throw the article at you! Do that and you're going to be sorry. How stupid could anyone be? This is classic I'm-right-and-you're-wrong energy. Take a moment and shake all of this energy off yourself. Which of your persona(s) slip into the persecutor position? What happens just before you make that move?

Timer for Change Good for: chronic pain, joint pain, releasing tension, stress relief In order to create ways of thinking, we have to do the work to create a habit. An easy way to accomplish this is to set a timer for every two hours throughout the day to remind you to do a particular activity. An important part of managing pain is remembering to breathe, relax your shoulders, and stop the negative self-talk. Setting a timer allows you to create habitual patterns for those. Let's begin. Pick a tone that is pleasant or fun to hear. What's happening to my breath? Are you holding your breath? Several studies (11, 99, 175, 228) have made use of the Discomfort-Relief quotient devised by Dollard and Mowrer (51) as a measure of the degree of psychological tension existing in the client. This device is based upon the ratio of words expressing discomfort and tension to words expressive of comfort, satisfaction, and enjoyment. In these studies it has been consistently found that verbal behavior indicative of psychological tension has decreased throughout the course of the interviews. In a small study by N. Rogers (175) it was found that this decrease was much sharper in a case judged by several objective criteria as successful, than in cases similarly judged to be moderately successful or unsuccessful. In the successful case the Discomfort-Relief quotient decreased from 1. In the moderately successful case the decrease was from . In the unsuccessful case there was an increase from . Interesting as these results are, they fall short in several ways of what we should like to know. The verbal indicators of tension are measured only in the counseling interview, not in the verbalizations which occur outside the interview.