The more you interact with someone, the greater the opportunity to build mutually beneficial relationships. Simulating interaction initiates cooperation- it is Mother Nature's call: Let's Play Ball! The core of your cooperative instincts is reciprocity, the give and take that occurs in any relationship. We all know there are times- and people--when we give more than we get. The reverse is just as true. Over the long run, though, the cooperative nature of any relationship will be a function of fair give and take. A great deal of research has been done on the role that reciprocity plays in cooperation, and all of it affirms what Mother Nature has hardwired into our social brain, and the brains of other species, but to a lesser degree. Reciprocity I: The Real Value of Recognition The vampire bat is one of your teachers. Recent research suggests that people tend to frame their relationship to work in different ways. More specifically, sociologists (Bellah, Madsen, Sullivan, Swidler, & Tipton, 1985) and psychologists (Baumeister, 1991 Schwartz, 1986, 1994 Wrzesniewski et al, 1997) have argued for a tripartite model of people's orientations to their work. These general orientations toward work partially determine the experience of work and its accompanying thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. The orientations represent more of an individual differences view of work attitudes, but one's orientation toward work may also be shaped by the job. As such, work orientation represents the interplay between the person and the job. Bellah and colleagues (1985 see also Schwartz, 1986, 1994) described three dominant orientations that reflect the experience of work in the United States. In the first work orientation, people view work as a job, focusing on the material benefits of work to the relative exclusion of other kinds of meaning and fulfillment. The work is simply a means to a financial end that allows people to enjoy their time away from work. Usually, the interests and ambitions of those with jobs are expressed outside of the domain of work (Wrzesniewski et al, 1997) and involve hobbies and other interests. In contrast, those with career orientations work for the rewards that come from advancement through an organizational or occupational structure. This would make the goal of better health or better health a reality much easier for these people. So far, efforts have yielded very few results.

There are foods that we can consume that naturally increase our metabolic rate, but not to a large extent. What we need is a way to directly change the rate. We need to be able to elevate our metabolism to a point where we can actually see an advantage. What determines our metabolic rate, to the extent that our genetics? In general, we tend to inherit the same tendencies for our parents' metabolic rates, body frames, and other related bodily functions. So, the origin of well, it comes from great people; of course, it's going to be great. Right now, the best results in increasing our metabolism come from exercising and building our muscle mass, while reducing our body fat. Vampire bats, according to those who study them, have long-term family units, often as long as 18 years. As a result, they have stability in their groups, interacting with the same bats every day. Also, for their body size, like humans they have a very large neo-cortex, so it is not surprising that they have complex social relationships that feature cooperation. In fact, when it comes to reciprocity, they literally step up to bat so to speak. They share blood with each other as a means of helping each other out when food becomes scarce. This behavior explains one of Mother Nature's rules for stimulating reciprocity. The first is recognition- the bats recognize each other. You can't repay a favor if you don't know who provided it, and you can't expect a return if others don't know whom they owe. Recognition--others knowing you and you knowing them--is essential to cooperative play. A smart strategy at work, especially when you are starting a new position, is to get up front and personal. For those with careers, the increased pay, prestige, and status that come with promotion and advancement are a dominant focus in their work. Advancement brings higher self-esteem, increased power, and higher social standing (Bellah et al, 1985, p 66).

Finally, those with calling orientations work not for financial rewards or for advancement but for the fulfillment that doing the work brings. In callings, the work is an end in itself and is associated with the belief that the work makes the world a better place. Although callings have traditionally meant being called by God to do morally and socially significant work (Weber, 1958, 1963), in modern times the term has lost its religious connotation and acquired a focus on doing work that contributes to the world (Davidson & Caddell, 1994). Whether the work actually does contribute to making the world a better place is defined by the individual worker - A physician who views the work as a job and is simply interested in making a good income does not have a calling, whereas a garbage collector who sees the work as making the world a cleaner, healthier place could have a calling. Our focus in this article is on those who work in callings, because they are maximally engaged in and passionate about their work. In an initial investigation of work orientation, Wrzesniewski and colleagues (Wrzesniewski et al, 1997) operationalized the job, career, and calling orientations, created measures of each, and surveyed 196 people from a variety of occupations. The measures took two forms - (a) a set of three paragraphs that described a prototypical job, career, and calling person; (b) a set of 18 items that were designed to reflect the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that were likely to accompany each work orientation. Adding more muscle to the body, in turn makes us burn more calories, and this helps raise our metabolic rate. Our metabolism functions also depend on how we have taken care of our nutritional needs. The process of burning calories and creating energy is delicate, and needs to be carefully maintained, or it may become unbalanced. It is often through these natural imbalances that we tend to inherit our metabolic rate. I believe that through careful analysis, and attention to each person's unique needs, we could bring a more natural balance of metabolic burn versus caloric intake. At a level where optimal health and weight control are in balance. The dictionary defines metabolism as the sum of all the biochemical processes involved in life, or the maintenance of life. In terms of our health, metabolism is linked to the intake and use of food. In reference to the example, it is our ability to use our food to the full extent. Right now, the best results in increasing our metabolism come from exercising and building our muscle mass, while reducing our body fat. Forget the advice you've heard about keeping personal matters at home. The truism is, by letting people know you personally, you increase the likelihood they will play ball with you.

Self-disclosure is your friend and gives meaning to your interactions. Share stories and your interests, all for the purpose of increasing your familiarity to others. And, get to know as many people on a personal basis as possible. Personal delivery of a message, especially early in the game, is much more effective than email for getting the reciprocity game going. Remember, ineraction cultivates reciprocity. In those huge university classes, the student who makes sure the professor knows who she is throughout the semester has a much better chance for the teacher to cooperate with her by extending her paper deadline than the student who steps forward from the last row the day before it's due. And, it will be hard for your boss to thank you or advance your career if he is clueless about what you contribute. Have you ever stimulated interaction with your boss by inviting her to lunch? For example, it was expected that those with job orientations would report that work was largely a way to get income and that they were not deeply involved with or passionate about their work. For those with career orientations, it was expected that work would be approached with a focus on advancement, moving between jobs, and seeing one's current job as a stepping stone to other things. Finally, it was expected that those with callings would report that work was a deeply involving domain in life that they enjoyed very much and would continue in without pay if financially possible. In addition, those with callings were expected to feel that their work contributed to the world in a meaningful way. Respondents were surprisingly unambiguous in reporting that they experienced their work as job, career, or calling. The sample was nearly evenly divided into thirds, with each third feeling that their work fit into one of the three categories. Within the sample, there was a group of 24 administrative assistants who worked in the same organization with similar levels of pay, education, and tenure. In this subsample, as in the full sample, each work orientation was represented by a third of the administrative assistants such that they were nearly evenly divided into the three work orientations. This finding suggests that even in the same job done in the same organization, there are quite meaningful differences in how people experience their work. Overall, it appears that those with calling orientations have a stronger and more rewarding relationship to their work, which is associated with spending more time in this domain and gaining more enjoyment and satisfaction from it (Wrzesniewski et al, 1997 Wrzesniewski & Landman, 2000). Adding more muscle to the body, in turn makes us burn more calories, and this helps raise our metabolic rate. Our metabolism functions also depend on how we have taken care of our nutritional needs.

Some people have very high levels of metabolism. In other words, when they eat food, their bodies burn it almost as fast as then consume it. Then there are those using that use our food intake so slowly, that not even notice that we burn calories. These people who burn quickly are often thin and trim, people who burn more slowly are people with a tendency to obesity. The body's metabolism is a unique process for each person. No person metabolizes food at the same rate so no two people have metabolism. We use all our calories at different rates, with different results. Our metabolism, like our fingerprints is unique to each of us. Getting others to know you personally is crucial to getting others to play reciprocity with you. Vampire bats teach us more about reciprocity by the nature of their blood sharing: payback. A vampire bat will return the blood to the giving donor but will not give blood to a bat that didn't give him any blood. While recognition starts the reciprocity game, payback is how we keep score. The phrases change, but the message is clear: We think of reciprocity as an exchange, or even an obligation. Payback or quality of exchange as a feature of reciprocity has been studied in many disciplines, most notably in the fields of game theory, economics, and social psychology. A common research method is putting individuals in situations that conflict their individual interest with group interest, as in the famous prisoner dilemma scenarios. Here, the participants are put in a situation in which each has to make specific choices. Each choice earns a set score. The game is rigged--by cooperating with each other, each participant will consistently get the most points in the long run. These studies have not been longitudinal, thus it is impossible to posit causal relationships (i. e.