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Keeps your bones strong and joints healthy. Helps you maintain a healthy weight. Helps you maintain your independence well into your later years.1 Constantly fighting your emotions can be like playing an exhausting game of tug-of-war with a monster. What might happen if you just put down the rope? The difficult emotions would still be there, but they would have much less power over you. Stopping the struggle could free more of your energy, and allow you to put that energy into other things that matter more to you. This seems to be pointing to a training trajectory that would imply that a longer rather than shorter period of training for developing the skills of Yoga teachers is valuable. On the other hand, Yoga has a well-developed manual to follow (Segal et al., 2013). So, it would be reasonable to believe that to be able to deliver the Yoga program, one could familiarize oneself with the manual, attend a one- or two-day workshop, and then proceed to delivering the program. This is a common continuing education training scenario for mental health professionals and is one that is frequently offered to stay current (maintaining competence) with developments in the field. Reduces your chances of getting heart disease. For those who already have heart disease, exercise reduces the chances of dying from it. Lowers your risk of developing hypertension and diabetes. Reduces your risk for colon cancer and some other forms of cancer. Improves your mood and mental functioning. A well-rounded exercise program has four components: cardio activity, strength training, flexibility training, and balance exercises. Each benefits your body in a different way. You can always find something positive in a disappointment or setback, but what if a major trauma or tragedy happens? When you're going through the kind of event that devastates your life, that overwhelms you with shock and grief, the last thing you can think about is being positive. Cardio: Cardio or aerobic exercise is the centerpiece of any fitness program.

Nearly all of the research regarding the disease-fighting benefits of exercise revolves around cardiovascular activity, which includes walking, jogging, swimming, and cycling. Experts recommend working out at moderate intensity when you perform aerobic exercise. Brisk walking that quickens your breathing is one example. Then Daffy thinks about how missing the deadline for the task will disappoint someone else, or himself, and will hurt his self-image and fill him with shame. The particular task may not actually be important, and in reality there may not even be a deadline, but by thinking this way Daffy makes a deadline with severe consequences. He focuses on how he will feel if he misses the deadline. Of course, how he will feel is in fact also part of the reality. So Daffy uses his mind to create a deadline and severe consequences, and he gets the task done. This is brilliant. Strength training: Strength or resistance training, such as elastic-band workouts and the use of weight machines or free weights, is important for building muscle and protecting bone. Flexibility training: Stretching is the third prong of a balanced exercise program. Muscles tend to shorten and weaken with age. Shorter, stiffer muscle fibers make you vulnerable to injuries, back pain, and stress. But regularly performing exercises that isolate and stretch the elastic fibers surrounding your muscles and tendons can counteract this process. Balance exercises: Balance erodes over time, so balance exercises are one of the best ways to protect against falls. Balance exercises take only a few minutes and often fit easily into the warm-up portion of a workout. Many strength-training exercises also serve as balance exercises, and you can add them into other forms of exercise, such as tai chi, yoga, and Pilates.2 It may seem an affront to suggest thinking positively when tragedy strikes but it can help you to cope with the pain you are facing. The two stories that follow show how two individual people have found positive aspects to trauma and tragedy. One day in June 2007, Bobby finished work and went to the pub to drink, as he did every day. Returning home a few hours later, he was rushing to catch the last tube train home and fell down the escalators.

`I was drunk, so I must have tripped and fallen, and I ended up in a heap on the floor at the bottom.' Bobby sustained a serious brain injury. Daffy says he finds the idea of the deadline exciting, by which I think he means challenging. So first, he makes sure that there is a deadline. When he agrees to do something for someone, he always asks, "When do you need it?" and then he makes that into a deadline. If the task is not for someone else, he just assigns his own deadline. He says that if there is no deadline, the task or obligation will always slide, other things will crowd it out, and it won't get done. Pain signals travel to the parts of the brain that handle emotions. The experience of pain can trigger difficult emotions, such as sadness, anxiety and anger. Emotions affect the body and can influence pain. It is normal to have a variety of emotions each and every day, however, sometimes it is useful to seek help when difficult emotions stay for a long time, or start to feel overwhelming. Speak to your family doctor, or therapist, or have a look at some of the resources in this chapter if you want help. Strategies that can help with emotional well-being include cultivating self-care, calm, acceptance and gratitude. I had been working out tirelessly on my own for months with the aim of shedding a few pounds. I remember just how hard it was for me. No matter how hard I was working out, I never lost a pound, and I never got the fitness results I was looking forward to achieving. Then, I realized I needed a personal trainer so I interviewed one from the local gym. Before making a decision on hiring him, I shared my very clear vision of what I wanted my body to look like. I want to have a firm, sculptured, and tight body. But I do not want to get overly muscular because my body tends to bulk up easily. Can you help me reach my goals?

He assured me it would not be a problem. Guess what? A few weeks later, I looked like the Incredible Ms. Hulk. My trainer did not know how to train or recommend figure-enhancing exercises for me. In fact, in a very short time, my body bulked up so much that I could not fit into my clothes. Yes, he got me into great shape, but it was not the body shape I was expecting or found pleasing. However, Yoga is atypical from other Western psychological interventions in some significant ways, and the distinction lies in the word "mindfulness-based." Mindfulness is a key component of the Yoga intervention therapeutically as well as is its grounding in a specific philosophy and psychology. Being a mindfulness-based program means that a substantial proportion of what it offers to participants relies on a teacher being able to teach them how to engage in the formal and informal practices of mindfulness and the relevance of this learning to the prevention of depressive relapse and to staying well. With his deadlines, scheduling, and creating severe consequences, even if only in his own mind, Daffy has made completing the task on time a challenge. He knows that when the task is done he may get some recognition and he can certainly give himself credit. Of course, each time he accomplishes something it's positive reinforcement for using this method; he feels good about himself. This is better than feeling that he has failed again and feeling lousy about himself again. That would set him up, so that when the next thing came up, he would be demoralized and be thinking, "Oh, here we go again; I probably won't get this done either." and likely wouldn't. Accomplishments are great reinforcers and boost our self image, which makes it much easier to get started and to do well the next time, and thus to break the vicious cycle of failure and demoralization. When you start exercising, you may feel some pain or soreness. In addition to stretching, try icing the area for twenty minutes several times a day for the first two to three days after the pain begins. Or use heat on the area after the first few days. The types of exercises you do within each of these four categories should be right for your body type if you want to maximize your workouts and get the shape you desire. Let me share with you how I accidentally learned--the hard way--about my own body type when I was in my late thirties.

Whenever you feel an emotion, it's best to push it way down or ignore it. The experience of pain is directly linked to emotional centres in the brain. Pain can easily trigger feelings of sadness, anger or anxiety. gratitude and calmness are two great strategies for emotional well-being. We will, rather than become overly proscriptive about content, outline some critical aspects for a training pathway that include its experiential nature as well as more didactic features for skill building. As a part of this, we see the five agents of change and TRIP as a valuable framework that can be included in the training of future teachers. For the beginner, having the experience of being a participant or observer in the eight-week Yoga program is essential. This should be followed by a five- to seven-day training that adheres to the protocol of a clearly laid-out curriculum (Segal et al., 2013). At this juncture, it will also be important for the novice Yoga teacher to have developed a personal mindfulness practice. Having attended an Yoga program as a participant and completed a foundational training program, the trainee teacher may be ready to begin teaching under the supervision of a more senior teacher (mentorship). When teachers first start teaching, it is suggested that they practice the Yoga meditations as they teach the program, allowing them to deepen their understanding of what their participants are going through. Facilitating a mindfulness-based program is multifaceted and will therefore require that the teacher train in a formal pathway. The tension for her (and for the creation of training programs) is to stay within an identified framework and emergent process. This requires learning the foundation of the protocol along with offering opportunities for practicing mindfulness. One of the major tenets of mindfulness practice is that everything is in flux, constantly changing. Consequently, we must apply this to training programs highlighting that learning to become a teacher is always an evolution requiring an emphasis on processing an inherent understanding of change, of the need for adaptability, of flexibility, of humility, and that learning is ongoing. But there is more detail involved. Once Daffy has made a task into a deadline situation, he breaks it into steps and he makes a schedule for doing them. By scheduling, he is in effect setting a deadline for each step. Elisa struggles to talk with her friends about her pain.