And while leaders in the health care industry understand that preventive care is better than reactive care for people and for the economy, it will not be enough to turn the tide. But the drugs for targeting aging that are already in development can do just that, and in the process, they can also forever change the way we think of aging. Maybe most important, they can help us to head off the problems that would otherwise accompany the dramatic rise in the aging world population that many predict. In exchange for hosting the panels, we signed a contract to pay the company for the electricity the panels produce. It's locked into a fixed fee for a certain period of time, which protects us against spikes in prices from the utility. Water conservation generally involves buying and installing water-efficient appliances, including toilets, showerheads, dishwashers, and washing machines. An increasing number of these appliances include information comparing their water usage. Even if you live in an apartment or otherwise can't switch out your appliances, making behavioral changes can help reduce your water consumption. Washing only full loads of clothes or dishes, turning off the water when you aren't using it (when you brush your teeth), and rinsing dishes off as little as possible will help minimize water usage. Because 30 percent of water is used outside, this is one of the places you can make the biggest difference if you have a lawn. Choosing not to water the lawn is easy and saves a lot of money! This is especially true if you live in a dry area where water companies charge more for each extra gallon used past a certain point. If you're in an area where a lawn needs to be watered, replacing your lawn with native plants or a rain garden can cut down on outside water usage. Not everyone gets it. Don't stress about it. We also need to address one of the most common questions that people worry about as they are beginning an intermittent fasting lifestyle: What if I get hungry? For some reason, we have been trained by modern society to never ever, ever allow ourselves to be hungry. We are encouraged to have snacks with us at all times, in fact. I remember those days from before I was an IFer: I would sometimes eat a snack just in case, even when I wasn't hungry. That's how scared we are to feel a twinge of hunger!

Yes, you will have periods of hunger as your body adjusts to IF, and you'll even experience some degree of hunger once you do adjust . You'll likely be surprised, however, to hear that hunger doesn't build and build until you just can't take it anymore. Actually, what happens is that you'll have a few waves of easy-to-ignore hunger that pass by quickly, particularly if you keep yourself busy. Maintaining this false belief will most likely result in ceaseless loneliness with a wall around your heart that you never allow to crumble. Pretty bleak, wouldn't you say? So how, then, are false beliefs helpful in any way? Especially when they generate anxiety? Here's the answer: They're not! The challenge with false beliefs is they often exist on a deeper cognitive level, muddying the waters of awareness--at least until you bring them to the surface. Whether currently aware or not, if you struggle with anxiety, you can bet you're practicing false beliefs that only serve to encourage it. To be crystal clear, false beliefs are detrimental to your calm because they create, encourage, reinforce, and maintain anxiety. Even with the proven effectiveness of exposure in extinguishing false fear messages, if false beliefs are maintained, they'll keep your anxiety fire lit. Not only will they undo the exposure progress you've made, but they'll continue to promote anxiety. The government pays about 85% of all medical care and 75% of the cost of prescription drugs. Almost everything in the Norwegian health system is divided into 2. Yet, as one health policy report notes, the traditional distinction of outpatient' andinpatient' are not relevant for describing the health system in Norway. Instead, the 2 sectors are defined as primary care and specialist care. Primary care is predominantly financed and overseen by the 356 municipalities. Conversely, 4 RHAs finance and oversee hospital and specialist care. The national Ministry of Health and Care Services, in turn, oversees the RHAs.

This bifurcation extends to the payment for prescription drugs used in primary and specialized care. Counties are responsible for children's and adolescents' dental care. By providing payments to RHAs and block grants to municipalities, the Ministry of Health and Care Services essentially defines the national health care budget and priorities. Imagine a world where not only the wealthy have access to the best health care and are therefore most likely to live long, full lives. Currently, longevity is largely a matter of education and socioeconomics, and it's a problem that will adversely affect more and more people if it's not corrected. In the United States, the opioid epidemic and the obesity epidemic played a leading role in the nation's first decline in average life expectancy (by a tenth of a year) in more than fifty years, and the populations in the poorest, least educated areas live a full ten years less than the average. So in addition to becoming poorer, the poor are becoming shorter-lived. But imagine a world where rich and poor have the same access to inexpensive longevity drugs--ones that cost a tiny fraction of the cost of treating an individual disease. The bad news is that the gap won't close quickly. Developing just one new drug can cost a billion dollars or more and 95 percent of efforts fail, so the first geroprotective drugs will probably be very expensive when they are first introduced. But, the good news is that Metformin is one of the least expensive drugs on the market, and once it's approved as a geroprotective drug many people will be able to afford this option. The other good news is that the prices of the new drugs will go down as the need for them increases. Several years ago, University of Southern California economist Dana Goldman and AFAR board member Jay Olshansky estimated that the financial benefits of commonly prescribed age-delaying drugs would amount to $7 trillion in the United States by the year 2050. If you want to water a garden, consider getting a rain barrel that collects rain instead of needing to draw it from municipal sources. Many cities and counties offer reimbursements or discounts for such purchases so they can fulfill their water conservation strategies. Reducing waste is probably the area that kids can be the most helpful. In Zero Waste Home, Bea Johnson expands the three Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) to five Rs: refuse, reduce, reuse, recycle, and rot. Refusing involves turning down items that cause unnecessary waste, including plastic bags, junk mail, and free stuff at events. Reducing requires minimizing the amount of stuff that you buy, which reduces packaging and leaves you with fewer items to deal with. Reusing means that you replace disposable items with reusable ones.

Using cloth bags, glass jars, mesh bags, and reusable bottles to buy food and other goods in bulk will cut down on garbage from packaging. Reusing also involves buying durable items that can last and be repaired. Because recycling itself takes energy and many places are throwing away certain materials instead of recycling them (especially plastics), it's a last resort. It's even more interesting to note that some of the rumbles we think are hunger are actually just mechanical actions of our stomachs! Until that rumble passes, take a drink of water and imagine that your body is tapping into your stored fat right at that very moment! If you ever experience nausea, shakiness, or dizziness, go ahead and open your window. Don't try to push through that; Remember that you have the rest of your life to get this right. There is one other important feature of the adjustment period that I want to mention: the urge to overeat during your eating window. Remember what I taught you in earlier articles: when our bodies are not well fueled, ghrelin (the hunger hormone) increases in response. When your body is still adjusting to IF, you are not yet well fueled during the fast. Your body is not accessing your fat stores efficiently, so your body responds by ramping up hunger. When your eating window opens, you may feel like a bottomless pit and like you can't get enough to eat. All this to say: false beliefs bad (nothing like a little Frankenstein speak for emphasis)! I recall working with Hannah, a meek married woman in her thirties, who was terrified to ask for her needs to be met. It wasn't that her husband was inconsiderate. In fact, she contacted me after being prompted by her frustrated husband, who was imploring her to work on this struggle. Hannah had never been one to ask for what she needed--she felt anxious just considering doing so. Needs she ignored included both major and minor, such as asking her husband to turn down the TV while she was reading, stating her opinion on what movie to see on a weekend night, reminding her husband to ask before making plans as a couple with friends, and requesting to be kissed while making love. We began working with exposure to face Hannah's fear of asking for needs to be met, while we simultaneously explored her attached false beliefs.

Hannah did well with exposure. At first, she was terrified to ask her husband for what she needed or preferred. For example, she always found it daunting to respond with a preference when her husband asked where she'd like to have lunch. Health Care Coverage (Norway) The Norwegian system is a public health insurance scheme with supplementary private insurance for a small minority. The National Insurance Scheme (NIS) is comprehensive: it covers pensions, disability, unemployment, parental leave, and health care. All tax-paying residents contribute to the NIS and, thus, are automatically enrolled in NIS without needing to make a positive selection of an insurer or sickness fund--and without paying a premium. There is also private health insurance, called voluntary health insurance (VHI). It does not cover any acute or emergency services, such as treatment for heart attacks, and is mainly used to avoid the wait times for specialist consultations and elective surgery. Norway is the 4th-most expensive health care system on a per capita basis, but the cost is relatively low on the basis of percentage of GDP. Overall Norway spends $7,400 USD (64,400 kr. But because of a high GDP per capita ($75,500 USD PPP 2017), it spends only 10. Of this, approximately 85% is publicly financed, 15% is from out-of-pocket spending, and under 1% is from VHI. Imagine how much faster scientific advances--in all areas of science--could be made if those trillions of dollars were not tied up in the treatment of the individual diseases of aging. And imagine the contributions to society that people could make when they are mentally and physically healthy enough to work and volunteer into their eighties and nineties. Some people argue that we don't need more old people, but in many countries people age sixty-five and older contribute more than 40 percent of the economy. They have worked and saved, their children have left home, and they have more resources and spend more money than younger people. In fact, if everyone age sixty-five and over were to suddenly die, the economies around the world would collapse. When I opened a panel on aging in Davos, panel members pointed to investments in technologies that will make life easier for the elderly, from phones with bigger screens and buttons to household robots, suggesting that this is how the economy will grow and be sustained in the face of lower birthrates, which means less income to support health and human services for older people and fewer people to care for them. But when I ask older people what's on their wish list, at the very top is getting a job.