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Iceberg Belief: I need to be at work. Ice Breaker: Do I really need' to be at work, or do Ichoose' to be at work? I need to keep a job, but I don't always have to be the first one to arrive and the last to leave. Iceberg Belief: Only weak people take time off. If the aim of education is to produce well-informed technicians who will be completely amenable to carrying out all orders of constituted authority without questioning, then the method we are to describe is highly inappropriate. In general it is relevant only to the type of goal which is loosely described as democratic. Let us endeavor to be more specific as to the educational goal for which a student-centered type of teaching appears to be relevant. The basic element has been stated by Hutchins. The foundation of democracy is universal suffrage. Universal suffrage makes every man a ruler. If every man is a ruler, every man needs the education that rulers ought to have. The main purpose of a democratic educational system is the education of rulers. This would seem to mean that the goal of democratic education is to assist students to become individuals who are able to take self-initiated action and to be responsible for those actions; When serotonin levels are low, the reward-seeking effects of dopamine become amplified. In other words, the needs and cravings you have become much more compelling. If you're already hungry, for example, that candy bar ad you usually ignore may sound suddenly convincing; Depression and anxiety can also be triggered when serotonin is low. An addicted person, like someone with depression, may feel flat, lacking in motivation and unable to enjoy things that were previously pleasurable. A vicious cycle ensues wherein people need to keep taking drugs--or continue with their addictive behavior--to feel okay, which only makes the problem worse.

They may also need to take larger amounts of the drug to get that same feeling, an effect known as tolerance. HOW BIG INDUSTRY HIJACKS YOUR BRAIN As an aside, know that Big Industry also studies neuroscience--and for more than idle interest. They're using brain hacks to hook you on their products. Ice Breaker: That's not true. It takes more strength to prioritize things outside of work than it does to conform to this outdated idea. Iceberg Belief: Important people work long hours. Ice Breaker: That's nonsense. Important people don't work long, they work smart. I do not have to conform to the social pressure to work long hours. What can I adjust in my daily routine so that I am making better use of my time? Iceberg Belief: Anything less than Supermom or Superdad is neglectful. Ice Breaker: Nonsense. Part of being a good parent means not being burned out and cranky. Admittedly there are a number of educators who do not profess these goals, and in some cultures a majority of educators would be opposed. Even in our own culture these are the functional goals of very few educators. The method of operation of our grammar schools, colleges, universities, and professional schools is ample evidence that the usual goal is very different -- more in the direction of producing a student who can reproduce certain informational material, who has skills in performing certain prescribed intellectual operations, and who can reproduce the thinking of his teacher. The approach to education which we are about to describe is not aimed toward these latter goals, but is an attempt to find a method which will achieve the goal described here as democratic. Whether this goal is appropriate to our current culture is a question which each reader must decide for himself. Since our culture to a very large degree is organized on an authoritarian and hierarchical basis and only partially upon a democratic basis, it may seem to some that education should reflect this ambivalence.

Each must reach his own conclusion on this point. SOME TENTATIVE PRINCIPLES AND HYPOTHESES As we have fumbled about in our attempts to develop a student-centered teaching which would build on the concepts of client-centered therapy, certain basic hypotheses have been crystallized which are very parallel indeed to the hypotheses of therapy. Some of these are stated below, in what may seem to be a rather technical form. Their profits, and their very survival, depend on it. It turns out that when a reward is intermittent or unexpected, it stimulates a bigger dopamine release than you get from regular, consistent satisfactions. It's why so many of us love a surprise party (not me! It's also why gambling can be so addictive, where people throw the dice based on the possibility of an intermittent reward. In fact, slot machines work on algorithms that allow people to win just enough times to get them to keep playing, even though on average everyone loses money. Corporate America exploits this. They know that this intermittent reinforcement extends to anything that is new or unexpected. That's why social media platforms like Twitter, Instagram, and Facearticle--and your email provider--love to buzz you with alerts. Turn off those alerts so you're less vulnerable. Here's another example of corporate America hijacking your brain: our vulnerability to instant gratification. Working Hard vs. Working Smart We promised you that we weren't going to tell you to work less in order to alleviate your stress, and we're sticking to that. How much you choose to work is up to you. The key word there, however, is choose. Stress comes not from how much we work, necessarily, but from how we respond to the internal and external pressures to put work above everything else in our lives.

Having said that, it's helpful to remember we live exactly once. For those who use up their days, hours, and years constantly working--especially if it's doing work that isn't meaningful or engaging--it nearly always leads to regret. There may be more breathing space in your days--and hence in your life--than you are currently seeing. Where are you taking on responsibilities at work that you don't necessarily need to? Stated thus as hypotheses, there is always the risk that they will be understood as flat statements of fact. It should therefore be emphasized that they are tentative in character, and still largely unproved by research in the educational field. We cannot teach another person directly; This is an hypothesis with which any thoughtful teacher will agree. It is indeed only a formal restatement of the old adage that You can lead a horse to water but you can't make him drink. Operationally, however, most teachers utterly ignore this basic hypothesis. Watch a faculty group concerned with the formation of a curriculum. How much shall we cover in this course? How can we avoid overlap between these courses? Isn't that a topic best taught in the third year? If you act quickly, you don't have time to adequately run it through your prefrontal cortex and consider the big picture, like whether buying those new shoes now may get in the way of paying your rent next week. One-click shopping has been quite a money-maker for industry, as is the instant availability supplied by a drive-through fast food restaurant. Don't fall for the buy now hype. The more we learn about our emotional reactivity and triggers, the better we can defend ourselves against manipulation like this. Marketers and corporations depend on us to respond in the short term, to react by instinct and addiction rather than after reflection when our long-term interests are front of mind. This article can help you not only curb your impulses to binge on drugs or food or anger, but to resist marketing come-ons that play on the same trigger-reward mechanisms and can likewise deplete us more than they help.

ADDICTION IS ABOUT WHAT'S ALREADY HAPPENED Oppressed people and those who have otherwise suffered hard lives fall prey to addiction more readily. History shows that addiction can be rare in a population but become widespread when social circumstances worsen. Consider again the Native American experience. Where are you losing time to unimportant tasks? Where can you work smarter? And, more important, what iceberg beliefs surface when you ask yourself these questions? Step Four: Determine Which Icebergs You Need to Maneuver Around These don't necessarily warrant the expenditure of your time or energy to melt. For instance, an iceberg of People shouldn't mix business and pleasure will only come up around the time of the holiday party or company picnic, or when you're invited to a dinner at your boss's home or when a personal friend approaches you about collaborating on a professional matter. Remember, this is a practice. Your work and family/home are likely two of the most important factors in your life, and learning to balance these is a lifelong pursuit. But with this skill, you now have the tools to identify and manage the internal conflicts that are at the heart of the struggle and to begin to make clearer, more informed choices about where, how, and with whom you spend your time and energy. My Plan for Striking Work/Life Balance What percentage of our first-year course shall be given to this topic? These are samples of questions discussed -- and they are all of them based on the hypothesis, which every faculty member knows is false, that what is taught is what is learned. Here, more than at any other point, is evidenced the revolutionary nature of a student-centered approach to education. If instead of focusing all our interest on the teacher -- What shall I teach? How can I prove that I have taught it? How can I cover all that I should teach?