If they don't protect it from frost, it will die. Unfortunately that love can come with disappointment. Studer talked about how in the Washington Youth Garden's Garden Science partnership schools, elementary school students started seeds and couldn't take care of them over a school break. No one came in to water the plants and almost all of them died. kids were heartbroken. recalled them asking, My plant, what happened to my plant? To understand autophagy, think of it as our bodies' ultimate upcycling program. What is upcycling? According to Wikipedia, upcycling is the process of transforming by-products, waste materials, useless, or unwanted products into new materials or products of better quality and environmental value. Elementary teachers are great upcyclers! Somehow, we teachers are all born with the instinct to take junk and turn it into something useful. We can make comfy seating nooks out of old tires, discarded paint buckets, and milk crates we borrowed from the cafeteria. Give us your old cereal boxes and we can make board games, playing cards, and article display shelves. Just as teachers are born with the upcycling instinct, so are our bodies. Trash becomes treasure, whether we are upcycling in our classrooms or upcycling within our own bodies. So, our bodies use the process of autophagy to recycle damaged or unwanted cell parts to use them for energy or for building blocks for new growth. No major threat to his survival. So what gives? First, based on a longstanding pattern of avoiding discomfort, Jeffrey had developed a low frustration tolerance. Feeling ill was uncomfortable, and this discomfort for Jeffrey was intolerable.

So he searched for a way to run from it. But more importantly, the unknown itself can be uncomfortable. Ability to tolerate the unknown is a major factor in the degree of anxiety struggle for any individual. Think about a person you know who rarely struggles with anxiety. A person who almost never seems anxious. Typically, they have a strong ability to tolerate the unknown (we'll discuss how this can be cultivated soon). These plans usually pay once a patient needs help with 2 activities of daily living, such as eating and bathing. Medicare covers 100% of the initial 20-day stay in a skilled nursing facility. Patients are then responsible for $167 per day for days 21 through 100, with Medicare covering the rest. After 100 days patients cover all the costs of the skilled nursing facility. Most long-term care is paid for by Medicaid. But to limit access there are restrictive and complex rules. To receive Medicaid payment, patients must meet 2 requirements: they must (1) have low assets and (2) require assistance with personal care such as bathing, dressing, and feeding. Additionally, a person must have no more than $2,000 in assets (excluding a car and a home if its value is below $552,000). In the past, middle-class Americans tried to transfer their assets to their children to qualify for Medicaid's long-term care funding. This loophole has largely been closed because the law requires a look back of 5 years to be sure such transfers have not occurred and requires that the elderly person get a fair value in return for any transfer of assets. When we began our Longevity Genes Project, we were still curious about the exchange between reproduction and longevity. I jokingly proposed that maybe for humans, it's more about raising kids than birthing them. Research conducted by Alan Shuldiner, endocrinologist, geneticist, and vice president of Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, has shown that the more offspring that Amish parents have (up to thirteen), the longer the parents live. A friend and colleague, Alan has conducted genetic studies with the Amish because they have only two hundred to three hundred founders.

likely that there's a social explanation for the results, considering that in such a society the more kids you have, the more kids are available to take care of you as you age. In our medical history survey, we ask the offspring of the centenarians and the members of the control group how many children their parents had and found that, besides having them later in life than their peers who lived to an average life expectancy, the centenarians had significantly fewer children--both the men and the women in our study had on average from one-half to one fewer child than the average. And since the centenarians--who have longevity genotypes--have fewer offspring, the number of people who possess a longevity genotype may have decreased with every generation. While income, education, and other factors affect birth rate, the centenarians in our study are more alike than different when it comes to education and income levels. They also did not have access to very effective birth control methods, so there seems to be a lot of evolutionary pressure to eliminate longevity genes. With this in mind, it's possible that the ages of Abraham--175--and Moses--120--recorded in the Old Testament and the Torah were true. The Youth Garden staff used the experience as an opportunity to discuss what the plants needed--sunlight, air, and water--and how to do better next time. Many parenting experts recommend using natural consequences--which gardening has in droves--to teach responsibility. Even if you do all the right things, gardening never quite goes the way you expect it to. Insects, diseases, droughts, and other natural phenomena are unavoidable. Fortunately these disappointments can build resiliency. Failure is part of this experience, said Studer. You can learn things from those opportunities honestly more than you can if something grows really well the first time. This sense of urgency can also be motivating. With the garden, you have to pay attention to it daily. You see results in a way that you don't necessarily see with the house, said Natasha Nicholes, who gardens with her four kids in Chicago. organelles? Autophagy upcycles their parts! Intracellular pathogens? Autophagy to the rescue!

Got cellular junk? Autophagy for the win! When we are fasting, autophagy increases to ensure our survival in the absence of food intake. I absolutely love the thought that while I am fasting every day, my body is looking for old cellular junk to remake into a spiffy new body part. If you've ever watched a TV show or read a magazine article where people lost massive amounts of weight, usually they are left with a great deal of excess skin. Personally, I lost over eighty pounds, and that means I need a lot less skin to cover my new slim body--yet I don't have any problematic excess skin. Jeffrey had a limited ability to tolerate the unknown, due to his pattern of fighting experiences where he was uncertain of the outcome. Of course, certainty of an outcome is never an option. Even when we expect an outcome based on a consistent result pattern, it can still change. For years, I fed our dog dry food. Then one day he refused to eat without my adding some wet dog food to the mix. I was certain that wouldn't happen. It never had before, therefore it wasn't supposed to happen at present. Try telling that to a hungry, salivating canine! There is no certainty, just varying degrees of uncertainty. For Jeffrey that night, the uncertainty was, Why do I feel ill? Preventive Medicine Private, ambulatory physicians provide most primary prevention services such as immunizations and cancer-screening tests. Medicare, Medicaid, private insurers, and other payers pay for them. A major change included in the ACA was that preventive services are provided without requiring patients to pay deductibles or co-pays, thus eliminating financial barriers to using these services.

Public health education campaigns are largely the domain of public health agencies at the federal and state levels, such as the CDC. DELIVERY OF HEALTH CARE SERVICES Care is delivered largely through private hospitals and physicians. However, there remain some critical public hospitals and public clinics, such as the Federally Qualified Health Clinics (FQHCs). In addition, the VA is a fully socialized medical care system--with the federal government owning hospitals and clinics, employing physicians and other health care personnel, and buying and dispensing drugs and other medical services. The ACA initiated an era of experimentation focused on changing how health care services are delivered so as to improve quality and reduce costs. Not to mention Methuselah, who's said to have lived to 964, and Noah, said to have reached 960. Maybe we're losing longevity genes because of a low rate of reproduction among those with exceptional longevity (Abraham had only two sons, one delivered when he was one hundred years old). We also wanted to see if there was any correlation between longevity in women and the age of menopause. As I looked through the stack of completed surveys on my desk, I noticed that nearly all the female centenarians had begun menopause exactly at age fifty. Wow, this is impossible, I thought. And there were too many cases to be a coincidence, so I called our nurse, Bill, who had administered the surveys, to ask if he had any insight into why so many of the women started menopause when they were exactly fifty. Well, I ask them when they stopped having their menses, and most of them don't remember, he said. So I say, `Fifty? We had a good laugh about that, but it's a perfect example of why research survey questions are standardized and need to be asked a certain way, which we eventually did once we homed in on the questions that were most important for us to ask. Blue zones are the places with the world's longest-living populations, as identified by National Geographic fellow Dan Buettner. Nicholes also founded the We Sow, We Grow community farm, which grows food locally and serves as an educational resource for people in the community. Building a Relationship with Nature and the Environment With the rules thoroughly established, we got the chance to explore the garden. As per the Youth Garden's philosophy of giving control to kids, the instructor gave them an exploratory activity--a scavenger hunt.