MAKING SENSE OF INFORMATION For the experts we just described, the key benefit of mental representations lies in how they help us deal with information: understanding and interpreting it, holding it in memory, organizing it, analyzing it, and making decisions with it. The same is true for all experts--and most of us are experts at something, whether we realize it or not. For instance, most everyone reading this right now is an expert in reading, and to get to that level you had to develop certain mental representations. It began with learning the correspondence between letters and sounds. At that point reading was a matter of laboriously sounding out each word, letter by letter. IN THEIR OWN WORDS: LEARNING TO HEAL By Ishita Mehra About the Artist: Ishita Mehra is a young mental health advocate and illustrator. Her work includes writing and illustrating personal stories of people about their mental health struggles, illustrating mental health themes and subjects and initiating workshops on mental health. Currently, she is focusing on starting a support group in Pune to allow people to access and facilities on mental health care. You can find her on Instagram @VoiletHill. Art by Ishita Mehra for The Health Collective By Dr Amit Sen I think one22 of the most relevant topics today in child mental health is ADD OR ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). Falret and Baillarger's predecessor Jean-Etienne Esquirol had done his best to deprive the term mania' of what he saw as its loose and casual meaning, and as the nineteenth century progressed it was distinguished from states of elation, excitement and agitated mental confusion. <a href=''>It</a> has been observed, in fact, that the progressive abandonment of the use of physical restraints in asylums coincides with a decrease in the use of this word. <a href=''>The</a> less the patient was actually stopped from moving, the less he would be described asmanic', suggesting that the term so often had a reactive sense: one became manic precisely because one was being obstructed or restrained in some way. The same applied to depression.

As Falret and Baillarger knew, anyone could become despondent and low in spirits. Wasn't this in fact one of the very consequences of having one's manic' activity kept in check for long enough? <a href=''>But</a> the lows of the new clinical entity they were describing were different. <a href=''>There</a> would be less insistence on a single theme or complaint, less the fixity on one unique object, such as a lost loved one, found in melancholia. <a href=''>The</a> latter term refers not to the mood of self-absorbed sadness but to a specific form of psychosis in which the person remains caught in an unrelenting onslaught of self-reproach and castigation, which they will often broadcast to those around them. <a href=''>What</a> the Continental psychiatrists showed was how high and low moods were not in themselves constitutive of the manic-depressive structure they were trying to circumscribe. <a href=''>Is</a> IF helpful for someone with PCOS? <a href=''>A</a> recent study showed that fasting showed multiple benefits for women who suffer from PCOS, which is polycystic ovary syndrome. <a href=''>What</a> is the best time of day to work out? <a href=''>As</a> I mentioned in article 21, the best time is the one that works with your schedule and fits into your day. <a href=''>That</a> being said, there's a lot to support the benefits of working out in a fasted state. <a href=''>Reread</a> that section of article 21 to remember why! <a href=''>My</a> trainer told me that I had to have protein immediately before/after/during my workout. <a href=''>Is</a> that true? <a href=''>And</a> I'm worried that I am not getting in enough protein during my eating window. <a href=''>Don't</a> I need to eat a lot of protein to build muscle? <a href=''>Associated</a> Number: I <a href=''>Why</a> Can't We All Just Get Along? <a href=''>If</a> you lovingly move your stuff in the Relationship corner according to feng shui wisdom, you can enhance your life in many ways. <a href=''>Let's</a> take the word relationship. <br /><br /><a href=''>The</a> root word is relate. <a href=''>The</a> question here is, how do things in your home relate to one another? <a href=''>How</a> does your particular combination of household items affect how you relate to others on a subconscious level? <a href=''>Can</a> you relate? <a href=''>Here's</a> how it works. <a href=''>First</a> you need to find the Relationship corner. <a href=''>With</a> practice, you began to recognize entire words by themselves. <a href=''>C-A-T</a> became simply cat, thanks to a mental representation that encoded the pattern of the letters in that word and associated that pattern with both the sound of the word and the idea of a small, furry animal that meows and often doesn't get along well with dogs. <a href=''>Along</a> with the mental representations for the words, you developed a variety of other representations that are essential in reading. <a href=''>You</a> learned how to recognize the beginning and ending of a sentence so that you could break up the strings of words into chunks that had individual meaning, and you learned that certain things that looked like they signaled the end of a sentence--Mr. <a href=''>You</a> internalized various patterns that allow you to infer the meanings of words you have never seen before and to use context to make sense of things where a word is misspelled or misused or left out altogether. <a href=''>And</a> now when you read, you do all of this unconsciously, the mental representations churning away under the surface, unnoticed but essential. <a href=''>While</a> almost all of you reading this are experts in reading, in the sense that you are fully capable of recognizing the marks on the article as corresponding to words and sentences in your language, some of you will be more expert than others in the task of understanding and assimilating the information contained in this article. <a href=''>And,</a> again, this is related to how well your mental representations allow you to overcome the limitations of short-term memory and retain what you are reading. <a href=''>To</a> see why, consider what happens when you test a group of subjects by having them read a newspaper article on something a bit specialized--say, a football or baseball game--and then quiz them to see how much of it they remember. <a href=''>You</a> might guess that the results would depend mainly on the subjects' general verbal ability (which is closely related to IQ), but you'd be wrong. <a href=''>It's</a> one of the most common disorders in childhood although there is a lot of controversy still across the world about the nature of it, whether it exists at all . <a href=''>There</a> is still an ongoing debate . <a href=''>So,</a> what is ADHD, how does it look and what does it do to children? <a href=''>Children</a> with ADHD often are full of life, very creative sometimes with a range of talents. <br /><br /><a href=''>However,</a> they have difficulty in focusing or attending to tasks that do not interest them. <a href=''>And</a> clearly one of the main things that comes to the fore is when they begin to go to school because they cannot sit down and focus on academic work, which, often for most children as you might know, is mundane, it's boring. <a href=''>These</a> kids will not be able to complete their classwork, will not sit and do their homework, will make silly mistakes in their work. <a href=''>What</a> confuses teachers and parents alike is that these kids, if they are interested in something -- let's say in football or music or art -- might do exceptionally well, and over there their focus and concentration does not fail them. <a href=''>And</a> that is the key thing to understand that kids with ADHD will focus very well in areas of interest, but are not able to do so in whichever area or activity they are not interested in . <a href=''>For</a> instance, if a child is passionate about football and you make them sit down and make a painting they will probably never finish it even when the day is over. <a href=''>It</a> was less a question of elation and misery than of the quality of such states, the relation between them and, most importantly, the thought processes underlying them. <a href=''>There</a> was an effort to move beyond the vagaries of mood fluctuation and surface behaviour to find the latent motifs of manic-depression, and to investigate the difference that these might have to melancholia and other diagnostic categories. <a href=''>Sadly,</a> these classificatory efforts were undermined by Kraepelin, who argued that mania and melancholia, whether seen together or individually, were all part of the samedisease'. The highs and lows that had been so carefully disentangled by the French psychiatrists were now lumped together in the overinclusive new category that Kraepelin initially promoted, and which is still largely promulgated by the standard texts of mainstream Western psychiatry as `bipolar disorder'. Yet if we hope to differentiate true manic-depression from the many forms of bipolar that swamp the diagnostic marketplace, we need to go back to the original project of distinguishing its elations and depressions from those found in other kinds of mental structure. Acknowledging the problems with the diagnosis of bipolar illuminates also the embarrassment of multiplying diagnoses and medications for the same person. A patient explained to me recently that they took lithium for their mania, olanzapine for their psychosis, dexmethylphenidate for their attention, and sertraline for their lows, as if their very being had been divided up on the table of an anatomist. Old psychiatry would have ridiculed such a dissection, recognizing that there is such a thing as manic-depressive psychosis, which includes within it mania and often depressions, and that one cannot divide up the person in such a way and prescribe for each symptom as if they were all unconnected. Yet today this atomization, with its piecemeal regime of prescriptions, is the rule rather than the exception. In his memoir, Electroboy, the New York art dealer Andy Behrman details the thirty-two pills and capsules he was taking each day, at age thirty-four: Risperdal, an antipsychotic; The short answer is that you do not need to take in protein immediately before/after/during your workout. Go back to article 21 and reread the discussion about protein timing and working out for a more thorough explanation. If you are a bodybuilder, however, you may be more concerned with increased protein needs. In that case, I would find a trainer or expert who understands how intermittent fasting and bodybuilding work together.

Can I take a pre-workout/post-workout/BCAAs/other exercise supplements during the fast? Think back to article 3 and recall that scientists discovered that our bodies ramp up natural production of carnitine and your body also recycles BCAAs during fasting. For that reason, you don't need to take them in a supplement, and definitely not during the fast! Keep in mind that most of the recommendations for these products come from someone who is trying to sell them to you by convincing you that you need them. Also, taking them in supplement form would break the fast due to the protein/food-like ingredients found in these supplements. If your goal is lowered insulin levels and increased autophagy during the fast, you don't want to take in any of these supplements. It happens to be the back right-hand corner of the whole house, as you walk in the front door. Relationships and Love location in bagua. Are relationship blues causing you to consider a career as a sensory-deprivation-tank test volunteer? Whether you're looking for Mr. Right or for Mr. Right Now, here are some tips to help you in your search for a successful relationship. Certain colors and objects reflect love. Pink, red, and white are excellent Relationship colors. Flowers and heart shapes are perfect Relationship objects. Valentine's Day is not just a Hallmark holiday after all. Studies have shown that the key factor determining a person's comprehension of a story about a football or baseball game is how much that person already understands about the sport. The reason is straightforward: If you don't know much about the sport, then all of the details you read are essentially a bunch of unrelated facts, and remembering them is not much easier than remembering a list of random words. But if you understand the sport, you've already established a mental structure for making sense of it, organized the information, and combined it with all the other relevant information you've already assimilated. The new information becomes part of an ongoing story, and as such it moves quickly and easily into your long-term memory, allowing you to remember far more of the information in an article than you could if you were unfamiliar with the game it describes.