Date Tags support

That is, how successfully a group adjusts to an internal disruptive force depends upon its employing direct and appropriate methods of attack on the problem. This principle has its counterpart in individual behavior. A person finds himself in a conflict-producing situation which upsets his own equilibrium. He becomes tense and uncomfortable. I want something better: a culture of inclusion, not accommodation. These problems could be solved with gender-inclusive bathrooms and changing rooms. It seems so simple. But the arguments get hurled back: It's too late or too expensive or against their religion--and besides, why can't you be like everyone else, then we don't have to do all this extra work. I'm asked to be patient. Change takes time, they say. Your anger won't help anyone understand. What they're really saying is I just don't matter as much. And no matter how good I am at emotional regulation, this imprints on my biological system. Injustice is embodied. Variations of these include need, have to, supposed to, and similar phrases. Look for an emotional upheaval that is disproportionate to what the event at hand warrants. If you go ballistic because you spill coffee on your shirt, it's a clue that an iceberg may be lurking beneath the surface (perhaps I must always show my best side to the world). Andrew tells a classic story in his workshops about this type of emotional mismatch. It's about a man; One night, Michael had to pull an all-nighter to get an emergency project done for a client.

He was working in his office upstairs, and his wife was downstairs reading. It was trash night, and in his family, it's his job to take out the trash. Michael heard the trash truck coming down the street, and he knew his wife could hear it, too. He thought, She knows how crazy busy I am right now. His turning to alcohol may produce a temporary relief from the tension, but it is far from being an adjustment appropriate to the state of conflict which exists in the total organism. Until the person becomes aware of the nature of the conflict, his behavior is not likely to be adjustive. In the same way, groups frequently exhibit non-adjustive or partially adjustive behavior, examples of which are so numerous as to defy classification. Scapegoating, projecting, inhibiting expression of feelings, blaming the leaders, attacking other groups, withdrawing, regressing to a strong dependence relationship to the leader -- these are some of the more obvious partial solutions employed by groups. IV) A group's adjustive behavior will be most appropriate when the group utilizes the maximum resources of its total membership. This means maximum participation of all group members, each making his most effective contribution. This proposition is a way of saying that the best decisions or the most appropriate actions of a group will be those based upon the maximum amount of data or resources of its members. Thus the most effective group will be the one in which there is participation of all group members, each member making his most creative contribution. This idea has been expressed in the report of the President's Committee on Civil Rights: Democracy assumes that the majority is more likely as a general rule to make decisions which are wise and desirable from the point of view of the interests of the whole society than is any minority. Let's map it out so you'll know inside and out that having these physical responses is not a personal failure. It's just basic human biochemistry. THE BIOLOGY OF STRESS I'm a science nerd. Understanding the science that supports an idea gives me a confidence that motivates me to make changes. Some early readers of the article had a different experience and felt a bit overwhelmed by this section.

I invite you to consider your style. If scientific detail appeals to you, keep reading. If you want the short synopsis, skip to article 49. In this article we'll focus on neuroscience (the study of the structure and function of the nervous system and brain) and endocrinology (the study of glands and hormones). Surely this time she'll take out the trash. A minute later, his wife walked into his office and told him to take out the trash. Michael did not respond well. He spat out okay to his wife, muttering a curse as she headed back downstairs and resolving not to take the trash out that night--or ever again. He paced up and down in his office like a caged animal, fists clenched and heart pounding, while he felt the red-hot flush of anger rise to his face. It took Michael a good hour or more to get calm enough to resume his work. That was a full hour lost, compared to the five minutes it would have taken him to take the trash out. Not only was Michael robbed of time and focus that night. He was also robbed of grace and resilience. If you're Michael, the trick is to see and evaluate the event in its most basic form, without editorializing. Every time a qualified person is denied a voice in public affairs, one of the components of a potential majority is lost, and the formation of a social public policy is endangered. How can the concept of the marketplace of thought, in which truth ultimately prevails, retain its validity if the thought of certain individuals is denied the right of circulation? Although these statements are taken from the context of civil rights for citizens of our nation, they reflect the essence of the proposition above -- namely, that what is best for a group is that which has been formulated out of the contributions of all of the group's members. If this proposition is valid, it helps to clarify the value of participation. The concept of group-member participation can be found in almost every article dealing with the problems of group leadership and administration. It has been stressed as a principle of industrial supervision, community action, and labor-management relations.

In psychology this concept has earned the label ego-involvement. Too frequently, however, one gets the impression from some of this literature that participation and ego-involvement on the part of group-members are things to be achieved so that the group-members will more readily accept the plans, goals, or decisions already formulated by the leaders. Obtaining participation thus becomes a leader technique for satisfying the members' natural desires for achievement, status, and recognition. True, participant groups do seem to have better morale than leader-centered or authoritarian groups. We will explore the brain and how it interacts with other systems in our bodies. But don't be fooled. While we're focusing on the body, what we're really looking at is how we embody the outside world. Your central nervous system is composed of your brain and spinal cord, and your endocrine system is composed of glands. These are the main actors in the communication and regulatory system of your body. Nerves, neurons, and neurotransmitters help conduct information in the nervous system, while hormones are the chemical messengers that conduct information through the endocrine system. The brain structure known as the hypothalamus connects these two communication systems, playing a pivotal role in activities essential for day-to-day survival of the individual and for the continuing survival of our species. Its overall role is to collect and integrate information from the body by organizing neural and endocrine responses that help keep our internal conditions in a healthy range, known as homeostasis. For example, the hypothalamus senses when our temperature moves out of homeostasis and sends hormones to the sweat glands to slow or facilitate heat loss through evaporation. Much homeostatic regulation is, like temperature regulation, automatic and below our awareness. First, get clear on the facts, and nothing but. What happened, really? In this instance, Michael had to take out the garbage. What about you? What's your garbage moment? Next, evaluate whether the event warranted your level of reaction.

At face value, how much of a violation of Michael's rights was this, really? What did having to get up and take out the trash really cost him? Five minutes, tops. On a scale of 1 to 10, maybe this was a violation of a 1 or 2. Nevertheless, not always is participation also seen as contributing to the total efficiency of the group. Not always is there a genuine belief on the part of leaders that participation pays off in terms of better decisions, more production, economic gains, more appropriate group adjustment. This narrow conception of participation as a method of obtaining willing compliance has been noted in the attitudes of some industrial executives, as pointed out by French, Kornhauser, and Marrow. They define three main patterns of control in management, one of which is characterized by efforts to obtain through participation and cooperation the workers' compliance, loyalty, good will, and welfare. These writers emphasize that such dealings are a device employed by management. Under these circumstances, democratic cooperation is at best a euphemism, and at worst a deceptive make-believe process. Sometimes management is deliberately using the attractive symbols of democracy, participation, man-to-man discussion, group decision, etc, to create the desired atmosphere within which it can smoothly manipulate the attitudes of its employees, retain their loyalty, and still run the business as it should be run, without irritating interferences from below. I am reminded of the remark of a training-group leader to the effect that his greatest concern was how to reconcile his intellectual convictions that the group must decide its own goals and methods of reaching those goals with his equally strong ideas of what those goals and methods should be. This same dilemma is seen in individuals in the initial stages of learning client-centered psychotherapy as they come to examine whether their own basic attitudes about people are consistent with the technique they are learning. A minister in one of the courses in psychotherapy once asked, How can I as a minister use this approach in my counseling and yet get the client to end up with the conviction that it was his faith in the Divine which was responsible for his recovery? The hypothalamus communicates with the rest of the body through the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary body functions, including breathing, blood pressure, heartbeat, and the dilation or constriction of blood vessels and airways in the lungs. It has two components, the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system, which have somewhat opposite roles. The sympathetic nervous system acts like a gas pedal, triggering the fight or flight response and providing the body with a burst of energy to respond to perceived dangers. The parasympathetic nervous system serves as a brake, prompting a rest and digest response that calms the body. In addition to these automatic functions, our hypothalamus also triggers our conscious awareness to motivate us to help in regulation.