Another was a lady in the USA who thought she'd had a type of cement injected into her vertebra following a fracture that left her in severe pain; she could be seen two weeks later playing golf, pain free. She did not have the procedure, she just thought she'd had the procedure! His theory states that the more you overeat, the more inured you become to leptin and the more food you need to eat to trigger it. This means the cells in the brain which should register leptin (the leptin receptors) become numb and no longer read' the signals saying the body is full, but instead assume it is starving - no matter how much food you continue to eat. <a href=''>In</a> panic, the brain pumps out instructions to increase energy storage (by instigating powerful cravings for high-fat, high-sugar foods because these are the easiest and most immediate forms of energy) and conserve energy usage (by dampening any urge to get up off the sofa and go for a run). <a href=''>These</a> cravings are made even more intense - and impossible to resist - because leptin is supposed to dampen the feeling of pleasure and enjoyment you get from food. <a href=''>If</a> you are leptin resistant, food never stops tasting delicious, no matter how much of it you eat. <a href=''>Thankfully,</a> Professor Lustig has shown that by cutting down on sugar in the diet it is possible to improveleptin signalling' (the brain's ability to read leptin), stop cravings, put the brakes on food consumption and trigger weight loss. The study of gut bacteria is growing fast and scientists are beginning to understand the important role played by the trillions of microbes in your gut. This, your microbiome, is a completely individual soup of helpful and less helpful bacteria. It is not only essential to how you digest food, but it can actually provide vital enzymes and vitamins and, it is thought, help control just how many calories you absorb from your food. The microbes in your gut have a number of functions, but one of the things they do is decide how much energy your body extracts from the food you eat (which can lead to weight gain if you eat the wrong foods). They also control hunger signals, help decide which foods you crave, and help to determine how much your blood sugar goes up and down in response to a meal. For instance, it is possible that your gut bacteria have a hand in making you choose a doughnut rather than a stick of celery. This is because there are millions of neurons in your gut which communicate with the brain via a very busy telephone line' called the vagus nerve, which travels from gut to brain and back again. <a href=''>There's</a> now evidence that your microbes can hack into this system andtalk' directly to your brain. If your day feels tricky, switch your focus and try this emotional brain-training exercise to access the powerful feeling of gratitude. Gratitude doesn't always arise spontaneously; it is something you can train yourself to feel. When you practise gratitude you are acknowledging the positive in your life, which can help you to feel more at peace with the way things are. Think of something good about your day.

It could be as simple as the hot shower you enjoy every morning, the beautiful flowers growing in your garden or your loving relationship with your children. Close your eyes and bring this thing to mind. Picture it in as much detail as you can, and silently say 'thank you' for its presence in your life. Notice any sensations of gratitude that you feel. Keep concentrating on your object or person for 30 seconds, allowing the feelings of gratitude to encompass you as you breathe naturally and calmly. You can do this exercise at any time of day, or try it in the evening when you get home from work. However hard your day has been, there is always something you can give thanks for. My point is this: being told you 'have something' isn't always the most useful piece of information; it can cause further sensitivity thanks to those belief systems and protective/avoidance behaviours. These two ladies had a more positive attitude because they thought that someone had 'fixed them'. * see next section So, a positive attitude to reducing sensitivity and not fixating on 'damage' is how you move forward. I'm not saying a bit of support from a manual therapist isn't helpful - for many people it is, but they are not 'fixing you'. They are supporting you in your self-efficacy, your belief that you can succeed in managing your situation. Touch is extremely powerful and calming to the central nervous system and so it has great value in 'alleviating symptoms' (remember Dr Lederman's process approach?). With a reduction in pain you can explore movement more freely and work on reducing your sensitive reactions to triggers. Manual therapists will be there for you as long as you need them and for those random times over the years when you need to revisit. But ultimately managing your pain is your journey and it starts here, with establishing movement patterns and learning to enjoy your body once again. Jack came in for treatment after having several panic attacks that came on suddenly. During the panic attack, he described experiencing his heart beating very fast, feeling like he could not get enough air, and starting to feel very faint. He was also afraid that he would do something out of control, although he had not previously had any instance to suggest he actually would. All he wanted to do was to get out of the situation and to be somewhere comfortable where he could get to safety.

Jack was engaged to be married to a woman he loved deeply and with whom he was excited to start a family in the near future. His current fear was that he was going to pass out during the wedding ceremony, which was going to be in a Catholic church and last over an hour. Since he would be the focus of everyone's attention, he was very worried about having a panic attack and not being able to just "slip out unnoticed." Karen came in for a consultation due to severe anxiety she was experiencing at work. She had recently been promoted and now needed to give presentations to her department during large company meetings. Karen was terrified of public speaking. She was worried that she would do or say something that would embarrass her or cause others to think that she was not a competent professional. The night before a presentation, she could not get any sleep and noticed that she became very short with her husband and friends. Karen knew that these presentations were key to being successful in her new role, and so she endured them with great distress. Although she did not experience panic attacks, she would get sweaty palms and her voice would get shaky when she presented. This only made her more self-conscious, and she found herself over-preparing and dreading these presentations. Both Jack and Karen (not their real names) were in quite a bit of distress when they started treatment. Jack had Panic Disorder and Karen had Social Anxiety. While only a mental health professional can provide a diagnosis, these vignettes can provide some clues into the types of symptoms you may be experiencing. Why would your microbes want to sabotage your healthy eating intentions like this? Well, some microbes need sugar to survive, others need fat, and in a bid for self-preservation, they each try to get more of what they need. The more sugar you feed the sugar-eaters, the more they'll shout for it. Research shows that having a wide range of different species in your gut normally means you are slimmer and healthier. Having a more limited microbiome is associated with being overweight and sickly.13 In a healthy diverse microbiome all those tiny creatures are clamouring to be heard and, like a gang of children all shouting at once, can cancel out each other's demands and are actually easier for the brain to ignore. If the sugar-lovers' voice is just as loud as that of the fat-lovers, neither gets heard clearly. The problem comes when one group - say, the ones who thrive on junk food - start to dominate.

As a gang, these bad guys will now be much noisier and more influential, and by producing chemical signals, generate cravings for junk food that you will find hard to resist. A healthy microbiome gets increasingly important as we get older as the wear and tear on the gut lining makes it ever more important to look after the gut bacteria in there working on our behalf. The gut is where you absorb nutrients, and you are not what you eat - you are what you absorb. See You can support your gut for tips on nourishing your microbiome. No-one can instantly convert unproductive living habits into productive ones. It doesn't happen overnight, and it is not always a smooth process. Inner calm is a skill that you have to nurture and develop over time - like learning a language or a musical instrument. Here are six useful habits to bring into your daily life. Take time every day to notice the level of calmness in your life, body, feelings and mindset. Rather than denounce or deny negative feelings, take a serious look at what you might not be doing for yourself in this regard. Be aware of what is pulling and tugging at your life. What needs to stay or go? What steps can you take to ensure that this happens? Structure your schedule to allow for more calm-producing activities. Think about what worked or didn't work for you in the past. Realise the self-sabotaging things you do and say that keep you from feeling calm. Fortify yourself with 'positive self-talk' to help put you back on track quickly if you become overwhelmed or lose your temper. Getting upset with yourself just doesn't help. Find support. Everyone needs people to keep them motivated towards positive strategies and to lean on when they hit obstacles.

If you find emotional issues frequently getting in the way of your harmony, seek the help of a professional. Follow these steps as often as you can. It's helpful to sit down and review your day each evening. Did you handle things the way you hoped or did you let your negative emotions get the better of you? Pain is notorious for affecting our ability to function at optimum levels, and for that reason these practices will only require you to remember five simple instructions so that you can just settle into your relaxation experience without having to repeatedly check the details. It is more common to practise relaxation at the end of a movement activity, however in this instance I am asking that you practise relaxation first, to calm the central nervous system and settle your pain sensors in order to get the most out of your exercises. As you get to know the relaxation techniques and improve, you can increase the amount of time you practise and experience a greater sense of peace as a result. Hopefully this will lead to a more positive outlook with regards to movement, both with these exercises and with life in general. We have some good ideas about what causes anxiety, and I will now share what the scientific community believes on this topic. The primary components of what contributes to the development of an anxiety disorder or panic disorder are: biology, learning, and stressors such as traumatic events. There is a biological component to anxiety, and we know that some people are born with a more anxious temperament. This means that some people are more prone or sensitive to experiencing anxiety or responding with anxiety to a stressful situation or life event. We also know that anxiety has a learned component. Learning theory suggests that anxiety can be acquired through learning and making associations between certain non-dangerous situations and anxious responses. This means that if we witness another person's anxious response, we may learn that that response is necessary. Children, in particular, learn about danger and safety from their surroundings. What this means is that if you had an anxious parent or caregiver, you may have inherited the predisposition to be anxious, and you may have also learned some responses that triggered anxiety in the absence of danger. This may include behavioral and cognitive learning. Behavioral learning is learning about how to act in a certain situation. It may include learning to avoid situations that are anxiety-provoking.