We knew, for instance, why each piece was there and what we wanted to accomplish with it. And we had a clear idea of the article's structure and logic--why one topic followed another--and the interconnections among the various pieces. We found that this process also forced us to think carefully about how we conceptualized deliberate practice ourselves. We started off with what seemed to be a clear idea of deliberate practice and how to explain it, but as we tried to describe it briefly in a nontechnical way, sometimes we found that it just wasn't working as well as we would have liked. That would lead us to rethink the best way to explain a concept or to make a point. For example, when we presented our initial proposal to our agent, Elyse Cheney, she and her colleagues had trouble understanding deliberate practice clearly. And I definitely believe that any mental illness that comes out of this is solely because of the context, and not because of the individual. Because overwhelmingly, we are seeing that there is a disadvantage that millennials and post-millennials are going to face. AMRITA: What are some the colloquial terms/ways people present or talk about mental health issues -- whether it's stress/ tanav/pareshaan/sadness/depression? PARAS SHARMA: I think you've hit the nail on the head when you've said stress',tension' in terms of colloquial terms . I think depression, stress, anxiety, worry and local variations of this are things that people are able to now verbalise. Depression, panic, panic attack, breakdown, are all words that have entered into the urban dwelling people's lexicon, even if it's in a vernacular language. So, I definitely think these are colloquial ways and terms with which people are expressing their mental health concerns. I think one more thing that we need to look at is there are physical health concerns which are often presented . Just to give you some context on my own experience for that matter. For me it started off -- my mental health journey of getting a diagnosis and starting medication -- with strong feelings of fatigue, poor sleep and an inability to fall asleep even after being very tired and having done a full day's work. Fond of lies. There are too many panes in the window. In contrast to these examples of manic speech, when depressed, the person would have little to say, and repeat words with the same basic signification: they were worthless, spiritually void, guilty of some terrible and ineradicable sin. There thus seemed to be a contrast between the way that in manic states the person was at the mercy of acoustic and formal connections between words but in the depressive states it was meaning or signification that governed them.

Early researchers observed how in the depressed state the resonance between words - the movement from eye' tolie' and pain' topane' - was hardly ever apparent, as if language had lost its acoustic vibrancy. How strange that the two axes of language - words and meanings - would each emerge in manic-depression in alternating strengths, as if each would have to wait its turn before seizing their subject. In the mania, it seemed as if words had prised themselves away from their meanings, so that acoustic connections could be followed, whereas in the depressions words were few and loaded with a single, monolithic meaning. Clinically things are a bit more complicated than this contrast might suggest. Manic subjects don't just follow words freely since they tend to end up at the same ideas or words or significations, as if led back to the same points on a map. The range of ideas may in fact be quite limited, and it was even suggested to speak not of flight of ideas' but offlight of words', since it was speech that seemed to go on interminably, circumscribing a relatively small set of concerns. You are simply getting rid of the ketones your body made during the fast. At what point during the fast will I experience autophagy? I have heard it takes twenty-four hours of fasting or more. Others say it happens around hour sixteen of the fast. What's actually true? This is a question that haunts the intermittent fasting world, and it would be really nice if we had an autophagy meter we could look at and know immediately that our bodies are engaged in cellular cleanup and repair. Of course, we don't have that. We do know that increased autophagy is linked to the state of ketosis. Go back to article 2 and reread that section for a refresher so you understand that this is something that varies from person to person (and even day to day) with no easy numerical answer. Why do I get so tired after breaking my fast? Is the address missing or confusing? Make sure there is a welcoming and orderly route to find you. Shine the door knocker, paint the door, place a pot with a flowering plant outside, open the shades, make your place inviting. Then place photos of happy people in your Relationship corner.

Better still, all around you. The more the better. If you don't have any, cut them out of magazines, get them off the Internet, or clip the Snap, Crackle, and Pop characters off the cereal box. Just surround yourself with people! You can also use any of the traditional ancient Chinese cures from article 1, like hanging a chime or a crystal in the corner, or placing a new healthy plant there. Get used to it, and then go out and get into the real world. In particular, they didn't get what separates deliberate practice from other forms of practice, other than that it is more effective. This was not their fault, but an indication that we hadn't made our explanation as readily intelligible as we'd thought. That forced us to rethink how we were presenting deliberate practice--in essence, to come up with a new and better mental representation of how we thought about it and how we wanted others to think about it. It soon occurred to us that the role of mental representations held the key to how we wanted to present deliberate practice. Initially, we had seen mental representations as being just one aspect of deliberate practice among many that we would present to the reader, but now we began to see them as a central feature--perhaps the central feature--of the article. The main purpose of deliberate practice is to develop effective mental representations, and, as we will discuss shortly, mental representations in turn play a key role in deliberate practice. The key change that occurs in our adaptable brains in response to deliberate practice is the development of better mental representations, which in turn open up new possibilities for improved performance. In short, we came to see our explanation of mental representations as the keystone of the article, without which the rest of the article could not stand. There was a steady interplay between the writing of the article and our conceptualization of the topic, and as we looked for ways to make our messages clearer to the reader, we would come up with new ways to think about deliberate practice ourselves. Researchers refer to this sort of writing as knowledge transforming, as opposed to knowledge telling, because the process of writing changes and adds to the knowledge that the writer had when starting out. So people are coming to us with physical health presentations, and those are the terms that people are finding accessible and talking about. AMRITA: What kick-started your interest in mental health? And can you share a bit of your personal journey? PARAS SHARMA: I think it's a process that slightly dates back to the time that I was finishing school.

I knew that I wanted a career in humanities when I got out of school so that was very, very clear. I wasn't happy with the lack of emphasis that people would pay to social sciences and languages -- those were my favourite subjects in school. Everybody was oriented towards math and science, and I generally did not like that. I was very clear I would get into humanities. When I got into humanities, I was suddenly given an option to study entirely new subjects which I was never offered in school -- psychology, philosophy, French -- subjects which were not ever given as options to me in a state board school. When I started learning psychology in Class XI, I knew that was something that I really, really enjoyed. Early researchers such as Falret, Hugo Liepmann and Ludwig Binswanger showed that this flight of words followed a hidden logic that was lost upon the casual observer. Mania was never a purely random flow of words, but had a real coherence and structure, yet one that was usually not obvious unless one listened very carefully. To take one example, when Norma Farnes visited the manic-depressive comedian Spike Milligan for the first time to apply for a job as his personal assistant, she remarked that the room was freezing. Yet in fact, as Farnes would learn, it was absolutely coherent. She had commented on the room's temperature and Milligan believed that the Americans had invented central heating. The implicit chain was thus: it's freezing - the central heating isn't adequate - Americans invented central heating - I hate the Americans. Farnes, perhaps prudently, didn't question his syllogism by telling him that it was the Romans and not the Americans who were ultimately responsible for the invention of heating. If manic speech is not as random as it may seem, what characterizes its apparent drift? Let's think about where manic states start. It is sometimes claimed that mania just triggers with no warning, as if completely out of the blue, yet often the manic person or those around him or her do sense in advance that something is changing, heralded perhaps by lack of sleep or anxiety. I want to take a nap! Picture a pride of lions after a kill--they all take a nap! Digestion takes a lot of energy, so it is normal to be tired after eating. Usually, it gets better over time, although I have to admit that I prefer the way I feel in the fasted state when I need to be fully mentally alert and sharp.

This is why I have an evening eating window. Why am I so cold during the fast? Does that mean my metabolism is slowing down? When we are digesting food, our bodies create a great deal of heat, which helps keep us feeling warm and toasty. Also, when you are fasting, your body increases blood flow to your fat stores to mobilize fat for fuel, and this results in less blood flow to your extremities. It's normal, so drink something warm and bundle up when necessary. Perhaps by placing your telephone in that corner you will be inclined to make calls that generate relationships (discontinue if it only gets you long-distance relationships). Tie a red ribbon on the incoming cord to invigorate the ch'i and stimulate more calls. People who need people . It's always a good idea to enhance your Family gua along with your Relationship gua. This will help connect you with people who will treat you like part of their family. Whether in business or amid marital bliss, it usually helps to be bonded in this way. If life is miserable because there is a certain person who won't leave you alone, try this: place a cactus in your Fame section (I repeat: Fame section) with the exact intention of keeping this specific person away from you. Although it is a feng shui nightmare to have a cactus in the Relationship corner, it can be used in Fame. The Fame and Relationship areas work well together because the Fame area helps garner respect for you. If you use the cactus there, you will be respected and left alone. This is an example of one way in which expert performers use mental representations to improve their performance: they monitor and evaluate their performance, and, when necessary, they modify their mental representations in order to make them more effective. The more effective the mental representation is, the better the performance will be. We had developed a certain mental representation of the article, but we found out that it had led us to a performance (the explanations in our original proposal) that was not as good as we wished, so we used the feedback we had gotten and modified the representation accordingly. This in turn led us to a much better explanation of deliberate practice.